Balai Lontano, meter 17 (Miocene to of Italy)

Where: Sardinia, Italy (40.8° N, 8.4° E: paleocoordinates 43.0° N, 4.2° E)

• coordinate stated in text

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Borutta Formation, Burdigalian to Burdigalian (20.4 - 13.8 Ma)

• "The Borutta Formation, which is assigned to the Late Burdigalian-Langhian based on calcareous nannoplankton (biozones NN4/NN5 of Martini, 1971) by Mazzei and Oggiano (1990) and Francolini (1994) and planktonic foraminifera (biozone N7 of Blow, 1969) by Bossio et al. (2006)."

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: transition zone or lower shoreface; fine-grained sandstone and rudstone

• "deeper shelf facies." "mainly located in the NNW-SSE-oriented Sardinian Basin (“Fossa sarda” Auctorum), a tectonic trough that extends from the Gulf of Sassari in the northwest to Cagliari in the south and comprises a number of minor sub-basins."
• Formation composed of "calcareous siltstones, fine-grained sandstones and marls." "The studied marine sedimentary succession of the Borutta Formation is composed mainly of fine-grained sandstones with intercalated dm- to m-thick rhodolith beds consisting of rudstones to floatstones. Lateral variations of thickness, lithology, and facies are common. Echinoid remains occur throughout the sedimentary sequence. The fine grained sandstones are highly fossiliferous and are dominated by spatangoid echinoids and the minute clypeasteroid Echinocyamus."

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: surface (in situ),

• "approximately 250 m2 extensive bedding surface of a 20-cm-thick bed at meter 17 of the section"

Primary reference: A. Mancosu and J. H. Nebelsick. 2017. Palaeoecology and taphonomy of spatangoid-dominated echinoid assemblages: A case study from the Early-Middle Miocene of Sardinia, Italy. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 466:334-352 [P. Novack-Gottshall/P. Novack-Gottshall/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 187430: authorized by Phil Novack-Gottshall, entered by Phil Novack-Gottshall on 27.07.2017

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Sampling focus is on spatangoid and other echinoids.
 Camarodonta - Trigonocidaridae
Trigonocidaridae indet. Mortensen 1903 sea urchin
"small trigonocidarids"
 Spatangoida - Schizasteridae
Opissaster sp. Pomel 1883 heart urchin
"Ova sp." = Schizaster (Ova) Gray 1825 heart urchin
 Spatangoida - Loveniidae
Hemipatagus sp. Desor 1858 heart urchin
 Spatangoida - Brissidae
Brissopsis sp. Agassiz 1840 heart urchin
Metalia sp. Gray 1855 heart urchin
 Spatangoida - Hemiasteridae
Holanthus sp. Lambert and Thiéry 1924 heart urchin
 Clypeasteroida - Fibulariidae
Echinocyamus sp. sand dollar
 Clypeasteroida - Clypeasteridae
Rhodophyta indet. Wettstein 1922
 Ichnofossils -
Thalassinoides sp. Ehrenberg 1944
"Thalassinoides-like burrows up to 2 cm in diameter which can extend more than 1 m horizontally"