Balai Lontano, complete section (Miocene to of Italy)

Where: Sardinia, Italy (40.8° N, 8.4° E: paleocoordinates 43.0° N, 4.2° E)

• coordinate stated in text

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Borutta Formation, Burdigalian to Burdigalian (20.4 - 13.8 Ma)

• "The Borutta Formation, which is assigned to the Late Burdigalian-Langhian based on calcareous nannoplankton (biozones NN4/NN5 of Martini, 1971) by Mazzei and Oggiano (1990) and Francolini (1994) and planktonic foraminifera (biozone N7 of Blow, 1969) by Bossio et al. (2006)."

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: transition zone or lower shoreface; fine-grained sandstone and rudstone

• "deeper shelf facies." "mainly located in the NNW-SSE-oriented Sardinian Basin (“Fossa sarda” Auctorum), a tectonic trough that extends from the Gulf of Sassari in the northwest to Cagliari in the south and comprises a number of minor sub-basins."
• Formation composed of "calcareous siltstones, fine-grained sandstones and marls." "The studied marine sedimentary succession of the Borutta Formation is composed mainly of fine-grained sandstones with intercalated dm- to m-thick rhodolith beds consisting of rudstones to floatstones. Lateral variations of thickness, lithology, and facies are common. Echinoid remains occur throughout the sedimentary sequence. The fine grained sandstones are highly fossiliferous and are dominated by spatangoid echinoids and the minute clypeasteroid Echinocyamus."

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: surface (in situ),

Primary reference: A. Mancosu and J. H. Nebelsick. 2017. Palaeoecology and taphonomy of spatangoid-dominated echinoid assemblages: A case study from the Early-Middle Miocene of Sardinia, Italy. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 466:334-352 [P. Novack-Gottshall/P. Novack-Gottshall/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 187431: authorized by Phil Novack-Gottshall, entered by Phil Novack-Gottshall on 27.07.2017

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Sampling focus is on spatangoid and other echinoids.
 Nonionacea - Nonionidae
Nonionidae indet. Schultze 1854
"nonionid foraminifera"
 Nodosariacea - Nodosariidae
Nodosariidae indet. Ehrenberg 1838
"nodosariid foraminifera"
 Decapoda - Portunidae
Portunus sp. Weber 1795 swimming crab
 Ostreiformii -
Pectinida indet. Gray 1854 scallop
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
Spondylidae indet. Gray 1826 scallop
Amusium sp. Röding 1798 scallop
 Ostreida -
Ostreoidea indet. Rafinesque 1815 oyster
"large and thick-shelled oysters"
 Xenophoroidea - Xenophoridae
Xenophoridae indet. Troschel 1852 carrier shell
Asteroidea indet. de Blainville 1830 sea star
 Cidaroida - Cidaridae
Eucidaris sp. pencil urchin
Prionocidaris sp. Agassiz 1863 pencil urchin
 Camarodonta - Temnopleuridae
Genocidaris sp. Agassiz 1869 sea urchin
 Camarodonta - Toxopneustidae
Tripneustes sp. Agassiz 1841 sea urchin
 Camarodonta - Echinidae
Psammechinus sp. sea urchin
 Spatangoida - Paleopneustidae
Pericosmus sp. Agassiz 1847 heart urchin
 Spatangoida - Schizasteridae
Opissaster sp. Pomel 1883 heart urchin
Schizaster sp. Agassiz 1835 heart urchin
"Ova sp." = Schizaster (Ova) Gray 1825 heart urchin
 Spatangoida - Loveniidae
Lovenia sp. Desor 1847 heart urchin
Hemipatagus sp. Desor 1858 heart urchin
 Spatangoida - Brissidae
Brissopsis sp. Agassiz 1840 heart urchin
Metalia sp. Gray 1855 heart urchin
 Spatangoida - Hemiasteridae
Holanthus sp. Lambert and Thiéry 1924 heart urchin
 Clypeasteroida - Fibulariidae
Echinocyamus sp. sand dollar
 Clypeasteroida - Clypeasteridae
 Echinoneoida - Echinoneidae
"Koehleraster sp." = Echinoneus
"Koehleraster sp." = Echinoneus Leske 1778 sea urchin
Rhodophyta indet. Wettstein 1922
 Ichnofossils -
Thalassinoides sp. Ehrenberg 1944