Sand Below Ashfall Lagerstatte (Miocene of the United States)

Where: Antelope County, Nebraska (42.3° N, 98.0° W: paleocoordinates 42.7° N, 95.4° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Cap Rock Member (Ash Hollow Formation), Clarendonian (13.6 - 10.3 Ma)

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; sandstone

• The basal sand contains an attritional assemblage of disarticulated vertebrate remains from animals that perished prior to the supervolcanic eruption (Voorhies, 1985; Herbel, 1994). This “fragmental layer” at the base of the Cap Rock Member was first recognized by Johnson (1936).

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils, microfossils

Primary reference: S. T. Tucker, R. E. Otto, R. M. Joeckel and M. R. Voorhies. 2014. The geology and paleontology of Ashfall Fossil Beds, a late Miocene (Clarendonian) mass-death assemblage, Antelope County and adjacent Knox County, Nebraska, USA. Geological Society of America Field Guide 36:1-22 [P. Holroyd/P. Holroyd/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 188779: authorized by Patricia Holroyd, entered by Patricia Holroyd on 18.09.2017

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo valentinensis Estes and Tihen 1964 toad
 Salientia -
 Caudata - Urodela
Ambystoma minshalli Tihen and Chantell 1963 mole salamander
Ambystoma tigrinum Green 1825 tiger salamander
 Testudines - Kinosternoidea
Sternotherus odoratus Latreille 1801 Common musk turtle
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Hesperotestudo orthopygia Cope 1878 turtle
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Chrysemys sp. Gray 1844 painted turtle
 Ornithurae -
Passeriformes indet. Linnaeus 1758 perching bird
"Passerine (Gen. et. sp. indet.)"
 Gruiformes - Gruidae
Balearica exigua crowned cranes
 Gruiformes - Rallidae
Rallidae indet. Vigors 1825 rail
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Apatosagittarius terrenus Feduccia and Voorhies 1989 hawk
 Squamata - Teiidae
Cnemidophorus cf. sexlineatus Linnaeus 1766 six-lined racerunner
 Squamata - Viperidae
Viperidae indet. Oppel 1811 viper
 Squamata - Colubridae
Ameiseophis robinsoni Holman 1976 colubrid snake
Salvadora paleolineata Holman 1973 colubrid snake
Paleoheterodon tiheni Holman 1964 colubrid snake
Thamnophis sp. Fitzinger 1843 garter snake
Nerodia sp. Baird and Girard 1853 water snake
 Squamata - Scincidae
Plestiodon sp. Dumeril and Bibron 1839 skink
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Sigmodontinae indet. Wagner 1843 mouse
"Sigmodontine (N. Gen. et. sp.)*"
Copemys sp. Wood 1936 mouse
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Spermophilus cyanocittus Korth 1997 ground squirrel
Ammospermophilus junturensis Shotwell and Russell 1963 antelope squirrel
 Rodentia - Geomyidae
"Phelosaccomys hibbardi" = Parapliosaccomys hibbardi
"Phelosaccomys hibbardi" = Parapliosaccomys hibbardi Storer 1973 pocket gopher
 Rodentia - Heteromyidae
Cupidinimus sp. Wood 1935 rodent
Mioheteromys cf. amplissimus Korth 1997 rodent
Perognathus cf. minutus James 1963 pocket mouse
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Eucastor sp. Allen 1877 beaver
 Rodentia - Mylagaulidae
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Hypolagus sp. Dice 1917 rabbit
Hypolagus cf. fontinalis Dawson 1958 rabbit
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Ochotonidae indet. Thomas 1897 pika
 Lipotyphla - Erinaceidae
Metechinus nevadensis Matthew 1929 hedgehog
Untermannerix copiosus Rich 1981 hedgehog
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Talpidae indet. Fischer de Waldheim 1817 mole
Domninoides sp. Green 1956 mole
"n. sp."
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Teleoceras major Hatcher 1894 rhinoceros
Aphelops sp. Owen 1845 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Cormohipparion occidentale Leidy 1856 hipparionine horse
Pseudhipparion gratum Leidy 1869 hipparionine horse
Neohipparion affine Leidy 1869 hipparionine horse
Pliohippus pernix Marsh 1874 horse
"? Protohippus simus" = Protohippus supremus Leidy 1869 horse
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Soricidae indet. Fischer 1814 shrew
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Myotis sp. Kaup 1829 vesper bat
 Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
Ischyrocyon cf. gidleyi Matthew 1902 bear-dog
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Leptarctus sp. Leidy 1856 mustelid carnivore
 Carnivora - Canidae
Leptocyon sp. Matthew 1918 canine
Cynarctus cf. voorhiesi Wang et al. 1999 bone-crushing dog
Aelurodon sp. Leidy 1858 bone-crushing dog
Epicyon cf. saevus Leidy 1858 bone-crushing dog
Epicyon cf. haydeni Leidy 1858 bone-crushing dog
Carpocyon cf. webbi Wang et al. 1999 bone-crushing dog
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
cf. Eubelodon sp. Barbour 1914 gomphothere
 Ungulata - Merycoidodontidae
Ustatochoerus skinneri Schultz and Falkenbach 1941 oreodont
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
"Prosthennops" sp. Matthew and Gidley 1904 peccary
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Protolabis heterodontus Cope 1874 camel
Megatylopus sp. Matthew and Cook 1909 camel
Procamelus grandis Gregory 1939 camel
Aepycamelus sp. Macdonald 1956 camel
 Ungulata - Gelocidae
Pseudoceras sp. Frick 1937 ruminant
 Ungulata - Palaeomerycidae
Cranioceras sp. Matthew 1918 ruminant
 Ungulata - Antilocapridae
cf. Proantilocapra sp. Barbour and Schultz 1934 pronghorn
 Ungulata - Moschidae
Longirostromeryx wellsi Matthew 1904 musk deer
 Cyperales - Commelinidae
 Equisetales - Equisetaceae
Equisetum sp. Linnaeus
 Urticales - Dilleniidae
Juglandicarya sp. Reid and Chandler 1933