Vero (Pleistocene of the United States)

Where: Indian River County, Florida (27.6° N, 80.4° W: paleocoordinates 27.6° N, 80.4° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Late/Upper Pleistocene (0.1 - 0.0 Ma)

• Stratum 3 of Vero excavation produced most materials (= "muck bed"); Stratum 2 less productive but supposedly not significantly older

•plants are mostly from layer No. 3 and vertebrates are mostly from layer No. 2 according to Hrdlicka 1917

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: "channel"; poorly lithified sandstone and unlithified, white, carbonaceous sandstone

• "The lower sand [= Stratum 2] marks the recession of the sea in which the underlying shell marl was formed. The upper beds (No. 3) mark successive seasonal layers of valley filling in the narrow valley of a small stream. The stream was apparently always small."
• "The former [human skeleton] lay in dark and somewhat indurated sands, layer No. 2 of Sellards, the latter for the most part at the base of layer No. 3, the muck deposit of the stream bed... layer No. 2 is seen to be overlain by a stratum of similar, but somewhat lighter, sandy deposits covered by a layer of marl [ranging] from about 5 to 9 inches in thickness, and when freshly exposed is of the consistency of fresh mortar, but on exposure hardens to fairly solid rock... The second skeleton lay... in some loose white sand and vegetable matter at the base of the muck layer" (Hrdlicka 1917)

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collected in 1913

Collection methods: quarrying, mechanical,

Primary reference: R. W. Shufeldt. 1917. Fossil birds found at Vero, Florida. Florida State Geological Survey Annual Report 9:35-42 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 34269: authorized by Matthew Carrano, entered by Matthew Carrano on 25.08.2003, edited by Richard Hulbert, Evangelos Vlachos, John Alroy, Austin Hendy and Uta Merkel

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Arcida - Arcidae
Acar domingensis6, "Arca cf. umbonata" = Arca (Arca) imbricata10, Arca (Noetia) limula10, Scapharca (Argina) campechiensis10, "Scapharca (Cunearca) incongrus" = Anadara (Cunearca)10, "Scapharca (Scapharca) transversa" = Anadara (Larkinia) transversa10
Acar domingensis6 Lamarck 1819 miniature ark
"Arca cf. umbonata" = Arca (Arca) imbricata10 Bruguière 1789 ark
Arca (Noetia) limula10 Conrad 1832 ark
"Scapharca (Cunearca) incongrus" = Anadara (Cunearca)10 ark
"Scapharca (Scapharca) transversa" = Anadara (Larkinia) transversa10 Say 1822 ark
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
"Glycymeris pectinata" = Tucetona pectinata10, Glycymeris americana10
"Glycymeris pectinata" = Tucetona pectinata10 Gmelin 1791 clam
Glycymeris americana10 Defrance 1826 clam
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
"Pecten gibbus" = Argopecten gibbus10
"Pecten gibbus" = Argopecten gibbus10 Linnaeus 1758 calico scallop
 Pectinida - Plicatulidae
 Pectinida - Anomiidae
Anomia simplex10 d'Orbigny 1845 jingle
 Carditida - Crassatellidae
Crassinella sp.10 Guppy 1874 clam
Crassinella ? lunulata10 Conrad 1834 clam
 Carditida - Carditidae
"Venericardia perplana" = Pteromeris perplana10, "Cardita (Carditamera) floridana" = Carditamera floridana10, "Venericardia tridentata" = Pleuromeris tridentata10
"Venericardia perplana" = Pteromeris perplana10 Dall 1903 clam
"Cardita (Carditamera) floridana" = Carditamera floridana10 Conrad 1838 clam
"Venericardia tridentata" = Pleuromeris tridentata10 Say 1826 clam
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
"Corbula ? cuneata" = Caryocorbula cuneata10
"Corbula ? cuneata" = Caryocorbula cuneata10 Say 1824 clam
 Cardiida - Mactridae
Mactra sp.10 Linnaeus 1767 clam
Mulinia lateralis10 Say 1822 clam
"Spisula solidissima" = Hemimactra solidissima10 Dilwyn 1817 clam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Venus sp.10, Chione interpurpurea10, Chione sp.10, Chione cancellata10, "Venus campechiensis" = Mercenaria campechiensis10, "Venus mortoni" = Mercenaria campechiensis10, Anomalocardia cuneimeris10, "Chione (Timoclea) grus" = Timoclea grus10, "Chione (Lirophora) latilirata" = Lirophora (Lirophora) latilirata10, Dosinia distans10, Dosinia sp.10, Transennella caloosana10
Venus sp.10 Linnaeus 1758 venus clam
Chione interpurpurea10 venus clam
Chione sp.10 von Mühlfield 1811 venus clam
Chione cancellata10 Linnaeus 1767 venus clam
"Venus campechiensis" = Mercenaria campechiensis10 Gmelin 1791 quahog
"Venus mortoni" = Mercenaria campechiensis10 Gmelin 1791 quahog
Anomalocardia cuneimeris10 Conrad 1846 venus clam
"Chione (Timoclea) grus" = Timoclea grus10 Holmes 1858 venus clam
"Chione (Lirophora) latilirata" = Lirophora (Lirophora) latilirata10 Conrad 1841 venus clam
Dosinia distans10 venus clam
Dosinia sp.10 Scopoli 1777 venus clam
 Cardiida - Donacidae
Donax variabilis10 Say 1822 clam
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
Strigilla sp.10, "Strigilla flexuosa" = Strigilla mirabilis10
Strigilla sp.10 Turton 1822 tellin clam
"Strigilla flexuosa" = Strigilla mirabilis10 Philippi 1841 tellin clam
 Cardiida - Semelidae
Semele ? bellastriata10 Conrad 1837 clam
Semele proficua10 Pulteney 1799 clam
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
"Cardium (Trachycardium) muricatum" = Trachycardium muricatum10, "Cardium (Trachycardium) isocardia" = Trachycardium (Trachycardium) isocardia10, "Cardium (Laevicardium) serratum" = Laevicardium serratum10, Cardium (Laevicardium) mortoni10, "Cardium (Cerastoderma) robustum" = Dinocardium robustum10
"Cardium (Trachycardium) muricatum" = Trachycardium muricatum10 Linnaeus 1758 cockle
"Cardium (Trachycardium) isocardia" = Trachycardium (Trachycardium) isocardia10 Linnaeus 1758 cockle
"Cardium (Laevicardium) serratum" = Laevicardium serratum10 Linnaeus 1758 cockle
Cardium (Laevicardium) mortoni10 Conrad 1831 cockle
"Cardium (Cerastoderma) robustum" = Dinocardium robustum10 Lightfoot 1786 cockle
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
"Divaricella quadrisulcata" = Divalinga quadrisulcata10, "Phacoides (Parvilucina) multilineatus" = Parvilucina multistriata10, Phacoides aff. nasuta10, Phacoides sp.10, "Phacoides floridanus" = Stewartia floridana10
"Divaricella quadrisulcata" = Divalinga quadrisulcata10 d'Orbigny 1846 clam
"Phacoides (Parvilucina) multilineatus" = Parvilucina multistriata10 Conrad 1841 clam
Phacoides sp.10 Blainville 1825 clam
"Phacoides floridanus" = Stewartia floridana10 Conrad 1833 clam
 Nuculida - Nuculidae
"Nucula proxima" = Nucula (Nucula) proxima10
"Nucula proxima" = Nucula (Nucula) proxima10 Say 1820 Atlantic Nut Clam
 Ptenoglossa - Epitoniidae
Epitonium lineata10 wentletrap
Epitonium sp.10 Röding 1798 wentletrap
 Neogastropoda - Olividae
"Olivella ? jaspidea" = Jaspidella jaspidea10, "Oliva literata" = Oliva (Ispidula) sayana10, Olivella mutica10
"Olivella ? jaspidea" = Jaspidella jaspidea10 Gmelin 1791 olive snail
"Oliva literata" = Oliva (Ispidula) sayana10 Ravenel 1834 olive snail
Olivella mutica10 Say 1822 olive snail
 Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
"Columbella avara" = Costoanachis avara10
"Columbella avara" = Costoanachis avara10 Say 1822 snail
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
"Nassa acuta" = Nassarius (Nassarius) acutus10
"Nassa acuta" = Nassarius (Nassarius) acutus10 Say 1822 snail
 Neogastropoda - Melongenidae
Melongena corona10 Gmelin 1791 snail
Busycon perversum10 Linnaeus 1758 whelk
Busycon carica10 Gmelin 1792 whelk
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
"Fasciolaria distans" = Cinctura lilium10
"Fasciolaria distans" = Cinctura lilium10 Fischer 1807 snail
 Neogastropoda - Marginellidae
"Marginella aff. apicina" = Prunum apicinum10, Marginella sp.10
"Marginella aff. apicina" = Prunum apicinum10 Menke 1828 margin shell
Marginella sp.10 Lamarck 1799 margin shell
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
? Urosalpinx sp.10 Stimpson 1865 murex snail
Eupleura caudata10 Say 1822 murex snail
Purpura haemostoma10 murex snail
Murex fulvenscens10 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
"Terebra dislocata" = Strioterebrum dislocatum10, "Terebra concava" = Strioterebrum concava10, "Terebra cinerea" = Hastula cinerea10
"Terebra dislocata" = Strioterebrum dislocatum10 Say 1822 auger snail
"Terebra concava" = Strioterebrum concava10 Say 1827 auger snail
"Terebra cinerea" = Hastula cinerea10 Born 1778 auger snail
 Littorinoidea - Littorinidae
"Littorina irrorata" = Littoraria irrorata10
"Littorina irrorata" = Littoraria irrorata10 Say 1822 periwinkle
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
"Sigaretus perspectivus" = Sinum perspectivum10, "Neverita duplicata" = Neverita duplicatus10
"Sigaretus perspectivus" = Sinum perspectivum10 Say 1831 moon snail
"Neverita duplicata" = Neverita duplicatus10 Say 1822 moon snail
 Vermetoidea - Vermetidae
"Petaloconchus irregularis" = Dendropoma irregulare10
"Petaloconchus irregularis" = Dendropoma irregulare10 d'Orbigny 1841 worm shell
 Calyptraeoidea - Calyptraeidae
Crepidula plana10 Say 1822 slipper shell
Crepidula fornicata10 Linnaeus 1758 slipper shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Turritellidae
Vermicularia nigricana10 turret shell
Turritella sp.10 Lamarck 1799 turret shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Cerithiidae
Cerithium sp.10, Cerithium aff. muscarum10, "Cerithium floridanum" = Cerithium atratum10
Cerithium sp.10 Bruguière 1789 cerith snail
Cerithium aff. muscarum10 Say 1832 cerith snail
"Cerithium floridanum" = Cerithium atratum10 Born 1778 cerith snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Modulidae
"Modulus floridanus" = Modulus modulus10
"Modulus floridanus" = Modulus modulus10 Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Fissurelloidea - Fissurellidae
"Fissurella alternata" = Diodora cayenensis10
"Fissurella alternata" = Diodora cayenensis10 Lamarck 1822 snail
 Cheilostomata - Microporidae
Cupularia denticulata10 Conrad 1841
 Myliobatiformes - Myliobatidae
"Aetobatis narinari" = Aetobatus5
"Aetobatis narinari" = Aetobatus5 eagle ray
 Carangiformes - Carangidae
Caranx sp.5 Lacépède 1802
not C. hippos
 Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
 Caudata - Urodela
Amphiuma means5 Garden 1821 two-toed amphiuma
Siren lacertina5 Linnaeus 1766 greater siren
 Testudines - Cheloniidae
Chelonia mydas5 Linnaeus 1758 green turtle
Caretta caretta5 Linnaeus 1758 loggerhead sea turtle
 Testudines - Panchelydridae
"Chelydra laticarinata n. sp." = Chelydra serpentina4, "Chelydra sculpta" = Chelydra serpentina5, "Chelydra sculpta n. sp." = Chelydra serpentina4
"Chelydra laticarinata n. sp." = Chelydra serpentina4 Linnaeus 1758 Common snapping turtle
USNM V8827 (holotype, formerly FGS 7094), an isolated left peripheral VI (Hay 1916, pl. 6.6, 7)
"Chelydra sculpta" = Chelydra serpentina5 Linnaeus 1758 Common snapping turtle
"Chelydra sculpta n. sp." = Chelydra serpentina4 Linnaeus 1758 Common snapping turtle
USNM V8826 (holotype, formerly FGS 5510), an isolated right peripheral IX
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
"Testudo sellardsi n. sp." = Hesperotestudo crassiscutata4, Testudo luciae n. sp.4, Gopherus polyphemus5, Gopherus praecedens n. sp.4
"Testudo sellardsi n. sp." = Hesperotestudo crassiscutata4 Leidy 1889 turtle
USNM 8817 (holotype), a left xiphiplastron (Hay 1916a, pl. 8.6–8; Auffenberg 1963, fig. 17).
Testudo luciae n. sp.4 Hay 1916 turtle
USNM 8818 (holotype), a partial right hypoplastron (Hay 1916a, pl. 9.5; Auffenberg 1963, fig. 17).
Gopherus polyphemus5 Daudin 1802 Florida gopher tortoise
Gopherus praecedens n. sp.4 Hay 1916 turtle
USNM 8828 (holotype), a left xiphiplastron (Hay 1916a, pl. 4.1–2), formerly cataloged under FGS 5463
 Testudines -
? Trachemys nuchocarinata5 Hay 1916 turtle
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Trachemys sculpta4, "Terrapene antipex" = Terrapene putnami5, "Terrapene innoxia" = Terrapene carolina5, Pseudemys floridana5, "Trachemys bisornata" = Pseudemys bisornatus4
Trachemys sculpta4 Hay 1908 slider
"Terrapene antipex" = Terrapene putnami5 Hay 1906 box turtle
many specimens; single bones
"Terrapene innoxia" = Terrapene carolina5 Linnaeus 1758 box turtle
many specimens including complete carapaces
Pseudemys floridana5 Le Conte 1830 peninsula cooter
"Pseudemys floridianus persimilis"
"Trachemys bisornata" = Pseudemys bisornatus4 Cope 1877 turtle
distal end of a fifth costal
Aves indet. Linnaeus 1758 bird
Stratum 3
 Charadriiformes - Laridae
? Larus ? sp. Linnaeus 1758 gull
Stratum 3
 Cathartiformes - Cathartidae
Cathartes aura Linnaeus 1758 turkey vulture
Stratum 2
 Galliformes - Phasianidae
"Meleagris gallopavo" = Meleagris gallopavo12, "Ardea sellardsi n. sp." = Meleagris gallopavo
"Meleagris gallopavo" = Meleagris gallopavo12 Linnaeus 1758 wild turkey
"Ardea sellardsi n. sp." = Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus 1758 wild turkey
Stratum 3
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Querquedula floridiana n. sp. Shufeldt 1917 duck
Stratum 2
 Strigiformes - Tytonidae
"Tyto pratincola" = Tyto alba pratincola
"Tyto pratincola" = Tyto alba pratincola Bonaparte 1838 barn owl
Stratum 3
 Pelecaniformes - Ardeidae
? Ardeidae ? indet. Leach 1820 heron
"comes nearest to Herodias egretta"
"Larus vero n. sp." = Nyctanassa violacea Linnaeus 1758 yellow-crowned night heron
Stratum 3
? Ardea ? sp. Linnaeus 1758 heron
Ardea? (sp.?); Stratum 3
"Herodias egretta" = Ardea alba egretta Gmelin 1789 great egret
Ardea herodias Linnaeus 1758 great blue heron
Stratum 3
 Ciconiiformes - Ciconiidae
"Jabiru weillsi n. sp." = Jabiru mycteria9, Mycteria ? americana
"Jabiru weillsi n. sp." = Jabiru mycteria9 Lichtenstein 1819 jabiru
Mycteria ? americana Linnaeus 1758 wood stork
Stratum 3
 Suliformes - Phalacrocoracidae
Phalacrocorax auritus12 Lesson 1831 double-crested cormorant
 Crocodylia - Alligatoridae
Alligator mississippiensis5 Daudin 1801 American alligator
 Squamata - Viperidae
Crotalus adamanteus5 Palisot de Beauvois 1799 eastern diamondback rattlesnake
Gilmore 1938 (14699): USNM 11333, 46 thoracic vertebrae; Fla. Geol Surv. No. V 2411 and 2412, each 2 vertebrae; V 2414, 2399, 1702, 191, 1712, 1765 single vertebrae each
 Squamata - Colubridae
Drymarchon corais5 Boie 1827 cribo
Gilmore 1938 (14699): (Drymarchon cf. corais couperi) Florida Geol. Surv. No. V 1630, two thoracic vertebrae; V 1546, three thoracic vertebrae; V 2163, two vertebrae
Farancia abacura5 Holbrook 1836 colubrid snake
MATERIAL LOST. Gilmore 1938 (14699): "The failure to find among the Florida serpent materials any vertebrae which can be referred to the genus Farancia leads me to question the authenticity of Hay’s reference of a single articular bone, no longer available, to F. abacura."
 Primates - Hominidae
Homo sapiens10 Linnaeus 1758 human
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Oryzomys ? palustris5 Harlan 1837 marsh rice rat
Reithrodontomys humulis11 Audubon and Bachman 1841 eastern harvest mouse
Sigmodon hispidus5 Say and Ord 1825 hispid cotton rat
Neotoma floridana5 Ord 1818 eastern woodrat
Neofiber alleni5 True 1884 round-tailed muskrat
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Sylvilagus palustris5 Bachman 1837 marsh rabbit
Stratum 3
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Scalopus aquaticus5 Linnaeus 1758 eastern mole
subsp. = australis
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
"Tapirus veroensis n. sp." = Tapirus (Helicotapirus) veroensis7
"Tapirus veroensis n. sp." = Tapirus (Helicotapirus) veroensis7 Sellards 1918 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 horse
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus americanus1 Pallas 1780 black bear
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Lontra canadensis1 Schreber 1776 North American river otter
 Carnivora - Procyonidae
Procyon lotor5 Linnaeus 1758 raccoon
 Carnivora - Canidae
"Vulpes palmaria n. sp." = Vulpes vulpes5, Canis sp.5, "Canis ayersi n. sp." = Canis dirus9, Canis latrans1
"Vulpes palmaria n. sp." = Vulpes vulpes5 Linnaeus 1758 red fox
Canis sp.5 Linnaeus 1758 canine
Stratum 3
"Canis ayersi n. sp." = Canis dirus9 Leidy 1858 dire wolf
Canis latrans1 Say 1823 coyote
 Carnivora - Felidae
Lynx rufus5 Schreber 1777 bobcat
subsp. = floridianus
 Xenarthra - Dasypodidae
Dasypus sp.5 Linnaeus 1758 armadillo
Stratum 3
 Xenarthra - Pampatheriidae
Holmesina septentrionalis1 Leidy 1889 edentate
 Proboscidea - Mammutidae
Mammut americanum5 Kerr 1792 American mastodon
Stratum 3
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
Mammuthus columbi1 Falconer 1857 Columbian mammoth
 Didelphimorphia - Didelphidae
Didelphis virginiana5 Kerr 1792 Virginia opossum
 Artiodactyla - Tayassuidae
Mylohyus fossilis1 Leidy 1860 peccary
Strata 2 and 3
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Bison sp.5 Hamilton-Smith 1827 bison
Stratum 3
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae
Odocoileus virginianus2 Zimmermann 1780 white-tailed deer
Odocoileus sellardsiae n. sp.5 Hay 1917 deer
 Scleractinia - Faviidae
Solenastrea hyades8 Dana 1846 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Oculinidae
Oculina robusta10 Pourtales 1871 stony coral
 Pinales - Pinaceae
Pinus sp.3 Linnaeus 1753 pine
 Pinales - Taxodiaceae
 Arales - Arecidae
 Rhamnales - Rosidae
Vitis sp.3 Linnaeus grapevine
Zizyphus sp.3 Linnaeus
 Theales - Dilleniidae
 Polygonales - Caryophyllidae
Polygonum sp.3 Linnaeus
 Juglandales - Hamamelidae
 Magnoliales - Magnoliaceae
 Dipsacales - Caprifoliaceae
 Sapindales - Aceraceae
 Fagales - Fagaceae
Merisca aequistriata
"Tellina lintea" = Merisca aequistriata10
"Tellina lintea" = Merisca aequistriata10 Say 1824