Kopaly Middle Level (Pleistocene of Kazakhstan)

Where: Kazakhstan (45.0° N, 79.0° E: paleocoordinates 45.1° N, 78.9° E)

• coordinate estimated from map

When: Early/Lower Pleistocene (2.6 - 0.8 Ma)

• Early Pleistocene, Khorgosian suite, Upper Villafranchian, MN18 - MQ19.

•'Kopaly is a multilayered palaeontological locality with a very complicated geological structure affected by tectonism.' Several erosional levels are present, the sediments are reversed magnetised, but it is thought that the Olduvai event may have occured during an erosional phase.


Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Primary reference: M.V. Sotnikova, A.E. Dodonov, and A.V. Pen'kov. 1997. Upper Cenozoic bio-magnetic stratigraphy of Central Asian mammalian localities. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 133:243-258 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: biostratigraphic analysis

PaleoDB collection 34446: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 01.09.2003

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Dated to later than 1.7Ma on the presence of Pachycrocuta brevirostris which appears in Europe at this date.
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Allophaiomys pliocaenicus Kormos 1932 vole
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Dicerorhinus sp. Gloger 1841 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus cf. stenonis Cocchi 1867 horse
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canis etruscus Forsyth Major 1877 canine
 Carnivora - Felidae
Homotherium sp. Fabrini 1890 cat
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Pachycrocuta brevirostris Gervais 1850 brown hyaena
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae