Livakos (Pliocene to of Greece)

Also known as LIV

Where: Macedonia, Greece (38.0° N, 21.8° E: paleocoordinates 37.9° N, 21.7° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Villanyian to Villanyian (3.2 - 0.0 Ma)

• MNQ18-19, Villanyian-Biharian, Plio-Pleistocene, latest Villafranchian.

Environment/lithology:

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: G. D. Koufos. 2001. The Villafranchian mammalian faunas and biochronology of Greece. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 40(2):217-223 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: biostratigraphic analysis

PaleoDB collection 34764: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 23.09.2003

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

unclassified
  -
Pontoceros ambiguus
Pontoceros ambiguus mediterraneus
Mammalia
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Stephanorhinus sp. Kretzoi 1942 rhinoceros
? Stephanorhinus sp. Kretzoi 1942 rhinoceros
Stephanorhinus etruscus Falconer 1868 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus stenonis Cocchi 1867 horse
Equus stenonis cf. mygdoniensis
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus sp. Linnaeus 1758 bear
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Mustelidae indet. Fischer 1817 mustelid carnivore
Enhydrictis ardea Bravard 1828 mustelid carnivore
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canis sp. Linnaeus 1758 canine
two species identified as Canis sp. A and B.
 Carnivora - Felidae
? Homotherium sp. Fabrini 1890 cat
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
Mammuthus meridionalis Nesti 1825 mammoth
 Artiodactyla - Hippopotamidae
Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus 1758 hippo
Hippopotamus amphibius antiquus
 Artiodactyla - Giraffidae
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Leptobos sp. R├╝timeyer 1877 antelope
? Leptobos sp. R├╝timeyer 1877 antelope
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae
Cervidae indet. Gray 1821 deer
"Pseudodama cf. nestii" = Cervus (Metacervocerus) deer
Pseudodama cf. nestii eurygonos
? Eucladoceros sp. Falconer 1868 deer