Atapuerca TD6 (Pleistocene of Spain)

Also known as Gran Dolina

Where: Castilla-Leon, Spain (42.4° N, 3.5° W: paleocoordinates 42.4° N, 3.6° W)

• coordinate stated in text

When: Calabrian (1.8 - 0.8 Ma)

• TD6 dated between 0.99Ma (Jaramillo) and the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary (0.78Ma), uppermost level of TD6 is the Aurora Stratum, containing Homo antecessor remains). Plans and maps given in Carbonell et al. (1999).

Environment/lithology: fissure fill; lithology not reported

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Preservation: anthropogenic

Collection methods: bulk,

• Material currently held in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid and Laboratori de Arqeologia de la Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona. They will be permanently stored in the Museo de Burgos.

Primary reference: E. Carbonell, M. Esteban, A. Martin Najera, M. Mosquera, X.P. Rodriguez, A. Olle, R. Sala, J.M. Verges, J.M. Bermudez Castro and A.I. Ortega. 1999. The Pleistocene site of Gran Dolina, Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain: a history of the archaeological investigations. Journal of Human Evolution 1999(37):313-324 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: archaeological analysis

PaleoDB collection 34870: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 09.10.2003

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• This list includes all animals reported from TD6 (except the carnivore list which has been subdivided). See Atapuerca Aurora stratum record for those reported just from the hominid layer.
 Charadriiformes - Scolopacidae
Limosa limosa3 Linnaeus 1758 black-tailed godwit
Scolopax rusticola3 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian woodcock
 Galliformes - Phasianidae
Coturnix coturnix3 Linnaeus 1758 common quail
Perdix palaeoperdix3 Mourer-Chauviré 1975 partridge
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Anas sp.3 Linnaeus 1758 dabbling duck
Anas crecca3 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian teal
 Falconiformes - Falconidae
Falco naumanni3 Fleischer 1818 lesser kestrel
 Columbiformes - Columbidae
Columba livia3 Gmelin 1789 rock pigeon
 Passeriformes - Alaudidae
Alauda arvensis3 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian skylark
2 humeri
Eremophila alpestris3 Linnaeus 1759 horned lark
1 humerus
Calandrella cf. brachydactyla3 Leisler 1814 greater short-toed lark
2 humeri
Melanocorypha calandra3 Linnaeus 1766 calandra lark
1 humerus
Lullula arborea3 Linnaeus 1758 wood lark
8 humeri
Galerida cristata3 Linnaeus 1758 crested lark
1 humerus
 Passeriformes - Emberizidae
Emberiza citrinella3 Linnaeus 1758 yellowhammer
1 humerus
 Passeriformes - Corvidae
Corvidae indet.3 Vigors 1825 perching bird
Corvus antecorvax3 crow
fossil form of the raven Corvus corax
 Passeriformes - Fringillidae
Fringilla coelebs3 Linnaeus 1758 common chaffinch
1 humerus
 Passeriformes - Cinclidae
Cinclus cinclus3 Linnaeus 1758 white-throated dipper
1 humerus
 Passeriformes - Hirundinidae
Hirundo rustica3 Linnaeus 1758 barn swallow
 Passeriformes - Muscicapidae
Muscicapa striata3 Pallas 1764 spotted flycatcher
1 humerus
 Passeriformes - Sturnidae
Sturnus sp.3 Linnaeus 1756 starling
 Passeriformes - Prunellidae
Prunella collaris3 Scopoli 1769 alpine accentor
1 humerus
Prunella modularis3 Linnaeus 1758 hedge accentor
1 humerus
 Passeriformes - Turdidae
Turdus philomelos3 Brehm 1831 song thrush
1 humerus
Turdus iliacus3 Linnaeus 1758 redwing
1 humerus
Turdus merula3 Linnaeus 1758 common blackbird
3 humeri
 Passeriformes - Motacillidae
Anthus pratensis3 Linnaeus 1758 meadow pipit
2 humeri
 Gruiformes - Rallidae
Porzana sp.3 Vieillot 1816 rail
 Rodentia - Muridae
Apodemus aff. flavicollis1 Eurasian field mouse
Micromys minutus1 harvest mouse
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Allocricetus sp.1, Pliomys episcopalis1, Mimomys savini1, Allophaiomys chalinei1, "Microtus seseae" = Microtus1, "Stenocranius gregaloides" = Microtus (Stenocranius)1, "Terricola arvalidens" = Microtus1
Allocricetus sp.1 Schaub 1930 mouse
"Microtus seseae" = Microtus1 vole
"Stenocranius gregaloides" = Microtus (Stenocranius)1 vole
"Terricola arvalidens" = Microtus1 vole
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Marmota sp.1 Frisch 1775 marmot
 Rodentia - Gliridae
Eliomys helleri1 dormouse
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Castor fiber1 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian beaver
 Rodentia - Hystricidae
Hystrix refossa1 porcupine
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Lepus sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 hare
Oryctolagus sp.1 Lilljeborg 1874 rabbit
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Galemys sp.1 Kaup 1829 Pyrenean desman
Talpa sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 mole
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Stephanorhinus etruscus4 Falconer 1868 rhinoceros
3 specimens illustrated
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus cf. altidens4 horse
6 teeth illustrated
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Sorex sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 long-tailed shrew
Neomys sp.1 Kaup 1829 water shrew
Crocidura sp.1 Wagler 1832 white-toothed shrew
Beremendia fissidens1 Petényi 1864 shrew
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Myotis sp.1 Kaup 1829 vesper bat
Miniopterus schreibersii1 bend-winged bat
 Chiroptera - Rhinolophidae
Rhinolophus sp.1 Lacépède 1799 horseshoe bat
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus sp.2 Linnaeus 1758 bear
2 unerupted lower M3, 1 deciduous canine
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Mustela palerminea2 weasel
1 hemimandible
 Carnivora - Canidae
Vulpes praeglacialis2 fox
1 distal humerus
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Crocuta crocuta2 Erxleben 1777 spotted hyaena
2 medial phalanges, 1 Lower Canine, 1 incisor, 1 second metacarpal, 1 mandibular condyle.
 Theriiformes -
Erinaceus sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 mammal
 Artiodactyla - Suidae
Sus scrofa4 Linnaeus 1758 wild boar
one lower P3
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
cf. Bison "voigtstedtensis"4 Hamilton-Smith 1827 bison
Bovini cf. "Bison voigtstedtensis". dental and postcranial remains
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae
Cervidae indet.4 Gray 1821 deer
very large, heavily worn upper P4-M3, possibly from same individual.
Cervus elephas4 deer
3 teeth (lower P3, upper M3 and incisor) plus limb bones.
Eucladoceros giulii4 deer
1 antler, 1 upper D2, 1 first phalanx, 1 3rd phalanx
Dama ? nestii4 fallow deer
Dama nestii? vallonetensis. 3 specimen illustrated