Atapuerca TD6-AS (Pleistocene of Spain)

Also known as Gran Dolina, Aurora Stratum

Where: Castilla-Leon, Spain (42.4° N, 3.5° W: paleocoordinates 42.4° N, 3.6° W)

• coordinate stated in text

When: Pleistocene (2.6 - 0.0 Ma)

• This is the hominid bearing Aurora stratum, which is the top section of TD6, between T36-43. Gran Dolina is formed of 11 levels. Dated between 0.99Ma (Jaramillo) and the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary (0.78Ma).

Environment/lithology: fissure fill; siltstone

• 25cm thick layer with a silty matrix and decimetric clasts.

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Preservation: anthropogenic

Collection methods: bulk, sieve,

• Material currently held in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid and Laboratori de Arqeologia de la Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona. They will be permanently stored in the Museo de Burgos.

Primary reference: E. Carbonell, M. Esteban, A. Martin Najera, M. Mosquera, X.P. Rodriguez, A. Olle, R. Sala, J.M. Verges, J.M. Bermudez Castro and A.I. Ortega. 1999. The Pleistocene site of Gran Dolina, Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain: a history of the archaeological investigations. Journal of Human Evolution 1999(37):313-324 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: archaeological analysis

PaleoDB collection 34872: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 09.10.2003

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• This is the list for the Aurora stratum, where this distinction has been made in the publications. The birds (Aves) hae not been divided and have not been included in this list. For a full list of birds in the whole level see the record for Atapuerca TD6. Ungulate identifications in Diez et al. (1999) do not correspond with those in van der Made (1999).
 Primates - Hominidae
Homo antecessor2 Bermudez de Castro et al. 1997 human
MNI = 6
 Rodentia - Muridae
Apodemus aff. flavicollis1 Eurasian field mouse
Micromys minutus1 harvest mouse
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Allocricetus sp.1, Pliomys episcopalis1, Mimomys savini1, "Microtus seseae" = Microtus1, "Stenocranius gregaloides" = Microtus (Stenocranius)1, "Terricola arvalidens" = Microtus1
Allocricetus sp.1 Schaub 1930 mouse
"Microtus seseae" = Microtus1 vole
"Stenocranius gregaloides" = Microtus (Stenocranius)1 vole
"Terricola arvalidens" = Microtus1 vole
 Rodentia - Gliridae
Eliomys helleri1 dormouse
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Castor fiber1 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian beaver
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Lepus sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 hare
Oryctolagus sp.1 Lilljeborg 1874 rabbit
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Galemys sp.1 Kaup 1829 Pyrenean desman
Talpa sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 mole
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Stephanorhinus etruscus2 Falconer 1868 rhinoceros
MNI = 2
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus cf. altidens2 horse
MNI = 3
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Sorex sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 long-tailed shrew
Neomys sp.1 Kaup 1829 water shrew
Crocidura sp.1 Wagler 1832 white-toothed shrew
Beremendia fissidens1 Petényi 1864 shrew
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Myotis sp.1 Kaup 1829 vesper bat
Miniopterus schreibersii1 bend-winged bat
 Chiroptera - Rhinolophidae
Rhinolophus sp.1 Lacépède 1799 horseshoe bat
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus sp.3 Linnaeus 1758 bear
1 premolar, 1 proximal phalanx, 1 metapodial distal epiphysis
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Mustela palerminea3 weasel
1 hemimandible
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canidae indet.3 Fischer 1817 canid
1 metapodial distal epiphysis
Vulpes praeglacialis3 fox
1 lower P3, 1 talus, 1 femur
Canis mosbachensis3 Soergel 1925 canine
1 femoral head, 1 distal tibia
 Carnivora - Felidae
Lynx sp.3 Kerr 1792 lynx
1 upper M1
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Crocuta crocuta3 Erxleben 1777 spotted hyaena
1 lower canine, 1 proximal phalanx
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
Mammuthus sp.2 Brookes 1828 mammoth
MNI = 1
 Theriiformes -
Erinaceus sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 mammal
 Artiodactyla - Suidae
Sus scrofa2 Linnaeus 1758 wild boar
MNI = 1
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
cf. Bison "voigtstedtensis"2 Hamilton-Smith 1827 bison
MNI = 2. Bovini cf "Bison voigtstedtensis"
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae
Cervidae indet.2 Gray 1821 deer
MNI = 1
Cervus elephas2 deer
MNI = 2
Capreolus sp.2 Gray 1821 roe
MNI = 1 (but Van der Made (1999) rejected the identification of Capreolus in TD6)
Megaloceros sp.2 Brookes 1828 Irish elk
MNI = 2
Dama sp.2 Frisch 1775 fallow deer
MNI = 2