Atapuerca TD4 (Pleistocene of Spain)

Also known as Gran Dolina

Where: Castilla-Leon, Spain (42.4° N, 3.5° W: paleocoordinates 42.4° N, 3.7° W)

• coordinate stated in text

When: Early/Lower Pleistocene (2.6 - 0.8 Ma)

• level TD4 has been dated after the Jaramillo event (0.99Ma) and before the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary (0.78) and is therefore late Lower Pleistocene.

Environment/lithology: fissure fill

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: bulk,

• 'on the basis of pollen analysis, a forested landscape dominated TD4 times, with Quercus and Pinus. The presence of leafy deciduous trees (Fagus, Betula, Juglans, Ulmus) and Olea indicate a transition between cold and warm conditions.'

Primary reference: E. Carbonell and X. P. Rodriguez. 1994. Early Middle Pleistocene deposits and artefacts in the Gran Dolina site (TD4) of the 'Sierra de Atapuerca' (Burgos, Spain). Journal of Human Evolution 26:291-311 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: archaeological analysis

PaleoDB collection 34916: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 16.10.2003

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Rodentia - Muridae
Apodemus aff. flavicollis1 Eurasian field mouse
Micromys minutus1 harvest mouse
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Allocricetus sp.1, Pliomys episcopalis1, Mimomys savini1, Allophaiomys chalinei1, "Stenocranius gregaloides" = Microtus (Stenocranius)1, "Terricola arvalidens" = Microtus1
Allocricetus sp.1 Schaub 1930 mouse
"Stenocranius gregaloides" = Microtus (Stenocranius)1 vole
"Terricola arvalidens" = Microtus1 vole
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Marmota sp.1 Frisch 1775 marmot
 Rodentia - Gliridae
Eliomys helleri1 dormouse
'Elyomys' quercinus quercinus
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Castor fiber1 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian beaver
 Rodentia - Hystricidae
Hystrix refossa1 porcupine
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Oryctolagus sp. Lilljeborg 1874 rabbit
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Talpa sp. Linnaeus 1758 mole
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Stephanorhinus etruscus3 Falconer 1868 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus sp.3 Linnaeus 1758 horse
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Sorex sp. Linnaeus 1758 long-tailed shrew
Crocidura sp. Wagler 1832 white-toothed shrew
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus sp.2 Linnaeus 1758 bear
 Carnivora - Felidae
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Crocuta crocuta2 Erxleben 1777 spotted hyaena
 Theriiformes -
Erinaceus cf. europaeus Linnaeus 1758 hedgehog
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Bison sp.3 Hamilton-Smith 1827 bison
Bison schoetensacki voigstedtensis
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae
Cervus elephas3, "Megaceros sp." = Megaloceros3, Dama dama3
"Megaceros sp." = Megaloceros3 Brookes 1828 Irish elk
Dama dama3 Linnaeus 1758 fallow deer
Dama dama vallonnetensis