Gydo Formation (1st Shale), Prince Albert area (Devonian of South Africa)

Where: South Africa (33.3° S, 21.8° E: paleocoordinates 59.5° S, 151.9° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Gydo Formation (Bokkeveld Group), Emsian (407.6 - 393.3 Ma)

• Age call from ref. 9618

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: marine; bioturbated mudstone and bioturbated siltstone

• Ref. 9618 gives interpretation of Bokkeveld Group as a series of shallowing-upward packages, with argillaceous unit below and arenaceous unit above. Gydo Formation, as the "first shale", is the lowermost argillaceous unit. The shallowing upward sequence is interpreted as representing environments from the shelf up to deltaic systems. Most fossils come from lower mudstones, often in lenses.
• Ref. 9616 refers only to "shale". Ref. 9617, for formation as a whole, cites "Mudstones and siltstones and minor thin-bedded sandstone, scattered fossiliferous nodules and lenses, lenticular bedding, abundant bioturbation."

Collection methods: Author gives numbers from personal collections, which are said to have some bearing on actual abundances.

Primary reference: R. D. F. Oosthuizen. 1984. Preliminary catalogue and report on the biostratigraphy and palaeogeographic distribution of the Bokkeveld fauna. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa 87:125-140 [M. Foote/M. Foote/M. Foote]more details

Purpose of describing collection: biostratigraphic analysis

PaleoDB collection 35578: authorized by Michael Foote, entered by Michael Foote on 29.12.2003

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

unclassified
  -
Trilobita
  -
Trilobita indet. Walch 1771 trilobite
 Phacopida - Dalmanitidae
Francovichia "sp. (a)" Branisa 1960 trilobite
 Phacopida - Calmoniidae
 Phacopida - Homalonotidae
 Proetida - Proetidae
Ostracoda
  -
Ostracoda indet. Latreille 1802 ostracod
Polychaeta
 Serpulimorpha -
Bivalvia
 Cyrtodontida - Praecardiidae
 Ostreida - Pterineidae
 Cardiidia - Sanguinolitidae
 Cardiidia - Grammysiidae
? Grammysia "sp. (c)" de Verneuil 1847 clam
"Cardiomorpha" "sp. (a)" de Koninck 1844 clam
 Modiomorphida - Modiomorphidae
 Protobranchia - Ctenodontidae
 Protobranchia - Solemyidae
 Protobranchia - Malletiidae
 Protobranchia - Nuculanidae
"Nuculana" viator pointed nut clam
"Nuculana" "sp. (b)" Link 1807 pointed nut clam
  -
"Pelecypoda indet." = Bivalvia
"Pelecypoda indet." = Bivalvia Linnaeus 1758 clam
Gastropoda
 Euomphalina - Platyceratidae
""Diaphorostoma" baini" = Platyceras (Platyostoma), ""Diaphorostoma" "sp. (a)"" = Platyceras (Platyostoma), ""Diaphorostoma" "sp. (b)"" = Platyceras (Platyostoma)
""Diaphorostoma" baini" = Platyceras (Platyostoma) snail
""Diaphorostoma" "sp. (a)"" = Platyceras (Platyostoma) Conrad 1842 snail
""Diaphorostoma" "sp. (b)"" = Platyceras (Platyostoma) Conrad 1842 snail
 Bellerophontida - Bellerophontidae
"Bellerophon cf. morganianus" = Sphaerocyclus morganianus
"Bellerophon cf. morganianus" = Sphaerocyclus morganianus Hartt and Rathbun 1875 snail
 Bellerophontida - Plectonotidae
"Bellerophon quadrilobatus" = Plectonotus quadrilobatus, "Bellerophon cf. fraternus" = Plectonotus derbyi
"Bellerophon quadrilobatus" = Plectonotus quadrilobatus Cowper Reed 1904 snail
"Bellerophon cf. fraternus" = Plectonotus derbyi Clarke 1899 snail
 Murchisoniina - Gosseletinidae
""Pleurotomaria" cf. kayseri" = Lahnospira kayseri
""Pleurotomaria" cf. kayseri" = Lahnospira kayseri Ulrich 1892 snail
 Murchisoniina - Palaeozygopleuridae
"Loxonema zwartbergense" = Pragozyga zwartbergense
"Loxonema zwartbergense" = Pragozyga zwartbergense Cowper Reed 1925 snail
 Murchisoniina - Loxonematidae
Loxonema "sp. (a)" Phillips 1841 snail
Tergomya
 Archinacellida - Metoptomatidae
Cephalopoda
  -
Cephalopoda indet. Cuvier 1797
 Orthocerida - Orthoceratidae
 Bactritida - Bactritidae
Bryozoa
  -
Bryozoa indet. Ehrenberg 1831
Stenolaemata
 Fenestrida - Fenestellidae
Fenestella "sp. (a)" Lonsdale 1839
 Trepostomata -
Chondrichthyes
 Ichthyotomi - Gyracanthidae
"Gyracanthus" "sp. (a)" Agassiz 1837 shark
"Gyracanthus" "sp. (b)" Agassiz 1837 shark
Teleostomi
  -
Acanthodii indet. Owen 1846 spiny fish
acanthodian spines
Osteichthyes
 Arthrodira - Coccosteidae
? Coccosteus "sp. (a)" Agassiz 1843 armour-plated fish
Stelleroidea
  -
"Stelleroidea indet." = Asterozoa
"Stelleroidea indet." = Asterozoa von Zittel 1895
Ophiuroidea
  - Cheiropterasteridae
Hexuraster weitzi n. gen. Spencer 1950 brittle star
  - Encrinasteridae
"Encrinaster" "sp. (a)" Haekel 1866 brittle star
Stenuroidea
 Proturina - Eophiuridae
Haughtonaster reedi Rilett 1971
Blastoidea
 Blastoidea -
 Fissiculata - Brachyschismatidae
Brachyschisma oostheizeni Breimer and Macurda 1972
Stylophora
 Mitrata -
Crinoidea
  -
Crinoidea indet. Miller 1821 Sea lily
 Dendrocrinida - Rutkowskicrinidae
Sacrinus gamkaensis n. gen. n. sp.
Sacrinus gamkaensis n. gen. n. sp. Jell and Theron 1999 Sea lily
 Cladida -
Kopficrinus halbichi n. sp. Sea lily
 Monobathrida -
? Arthroacantha sp. Wlliams 1883 Sea lily
 Diplobathrida -
Hyolitha
 Orthothecida -
 Hyolithida - Hyolithidae
Hyolithes "sp. (c)" d'Eichwald 1840
Hyolithes "sp. (e)" d'Eichwald 1840
Hyolithes dorbignyi Kozlowski 1923
Lophophorata
 Tentaculitida - Tentaculitidae
Brachiopoda
  -
Brachiopoda indet. Cuvier 1805
Strophomenata
 Productida - Chonetidae
 Productida - Eodevonariidae
 Orthotetida - Pulsiidae
Rhynchonellata
 Athyridida - Anoplothecidae
 Terebratulida - Cryptonellidae
 Terebratulida - Centronellidae
 Terebratulida - Meganterididae
 Spiriferida - Ambocoeliidae
 Spiriferida - Acrospiriferidae
 Spiriferida - Hysterolitidae
 Rhynchonellida - Leptocoeliidae
 Rhynchonellida - Rhynchonellidae
 Orthida - Orthidae
"Orthis" "sp. (a)" Dalman 1828
"Orthis" "sp. (b)" Dalman 1828
Lingulata
 Lingulida - Disciniidae
Scyphozoa
 Conulariida - Conulariidae
Anthozoa
 Favositida - Micheliniidae
? Pleurodictyum "sp. (a)" Goldfuss 1829 tabulate coral
 Stauriida - Zaphrentidae
""Zaphrentis" "sp. (a)"" = Zaphrenthis
""Zaphrentis" "sp. (a)"" = Zaphrenthis Rafinesque and Clifford 1820 horn coral