Gydo Formation (1st Shale), Cockscomb Mts (Devonian of South Africa)

Where: South Africa (33.5° S, 24.7° E: paleocoordinates 58.2° S, 155.9° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Gydo Formation (Bokkeveld Group), Emsian (407.6 - 393.3 Ma)

• Age call from ref. 9618

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: marine; bioturbated mudstone and bioturbated siltstone

• Ref. 9618 gives interpretation of Bokkeveld Group as a series of shallowing-upward packages, with argillaceous unit below and arenaceous unit above. Gydo Formation, as the "first shale", is the lowermost argillaceous unit. The shallowing upward sequence is interpreted as representing environments from the shelf up to deltaic systems. Most fossils come from lower mudstones, often in lenses.
• Ref. 9616 refers only to "shale". Ref. 9617, for formation as a whole, cites "Mudstones and siltstones and minor thin-bedded sandstone, scattered fossiliferous nodules and lenses, lenticular bedding, abundant bioturbation."

Collection methods: Author gives numbers from personal collections, which are said to have some bearing on actual abundances.

Primary reference: R. D. F. Oosthuizen. 1984. Preliminary catalogue and report on the biostratigraphy and palaeogeographic distribution of the Bokkeveld fauna. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa 87:125-140 [M. Foote/M. Foote/M. Foote]more details

Purpose of describing collection: biostratigraphic analysis

PaleoDB collection 35581: authorized by Michael Foote, entered by Michael Foote on 29.12.2003

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Trilobita
 Phacopida - Dalmanitidae
Francovichia "sp. (a)" Branisa 1960 trilobite
 Phacopida - Calmoniidae
Pennaia pupillus trilobite
? Deltacephalaspis "sp. (a)" Eldredge and Ormiston 1979 trilobite
 Phacopida - Homalonotidae
 Proetida - Proetidae
Ormistoniella "sp. (a)" Cooper 1982 trilobite
Ostracoda
  -
Ostracoda indet. Latreille 1802 ostracod
Bivalvia
  -
"Pelecypoda indet." = Bivalvia
"Pelecypoda indet." = Bivalvia Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Cyrtodontida - Praecardiidae
 Pectinida - Pterinopectinidae
? Pterinopecten "sp. (a)" Hall 1883 scallop
? Pterinopecten "sp. (b)" Hall 1883 scallop
? Pterinopecten "sp. (c)" Hall 1883 scallop
 Ostreida - Pterineidae
 Cardiidia - Sanguinolitidae
 Cardiidia - Grammysiidae
 Modiomorphida - Modiomorphidae
 Pholadomyida -
 Protobranchia - Ctenodontidae
 Protobranchia - Solemyidae
"Janeia" "sp. (a)" King 1850 Awning Clam
 Protobranchia - Malletiidae
Nuculites "sp. (a)" Conrad 1841 clam
Nuculites "sp. (d)" Conrad 1841 clam
Nuculites "sp. (e)" Conrad 1841 clam
Nuculites oblongatus Conrad 1841 clam
Palaeoneilo "sp. (a)" Hall and Whitfield 1869 clam
Palaeoneilo "sp. (b)" Hall and Whitfield 1869 clam
Palaeoneilo "sp. (d)" Hall and Whitfield 1869 clam
Palaeoneilo "sp. (e)" Hall and Whitfield 1869 clam
Palaeoneilo "sp. (f)" Hall and Whitfield 1869 clam
 Protobranchia - Nuculanidae
"Nuculana" cf. inornata pointed nut clam
Gastropoda
 Euomphalina - Platyceratidae
? Platyceras "sp. (a)" Conrad 1840 snail
""Diaphorostoma" baini" = Platyceras (Platyostoma) snail
 Bellerophontida - Plectonotidae
"Bellerophon cf. dereimsi" = Plectonotus dereimsi, "Bellerophon cf. fraternus" = Plectonotus derbyi, "Bellerophon cf. laticarinatus" = Plectonotus laticarinata
"Bellerophon cf. dereimsi" = Plectonotus dereimsi Knod 1908 snail
[entered as Bellerophon dereimesi]
"Bellerophon cf. fraternus" = Plectonotus derbyi Clarke 1899 snail
"Bellerophon cf. laticarinatus" = Plectonotus laticarinata Knod 1908 snail
 Murchisoniina - Gosseletinidae
""Pleurotomaria" cf. kayseri" = Lahnospira kayseri
""Pleurotomaria" cf. kayseri" = Lahnospira kayseri Ulrich 1892 snail
 Murchisoniina - Palaeozygopleuridae
"Loxonema cf. glabrum" = Palaeozygopleura glabra, "Loxonema zwartbergense" = Pragozyga zwartbergense
"Loxonema cf. glabrum" = Palaeozygopleura glabra Clarke and Swartz 1913 snail
"Loxonema zwartbergense" = Pragozyga zwartbergense Cowper Reed 1925 snail
 Pleurotomariida - Pleurotomariidae
"Pleurotomaria" "sp. (a)" Defrance 1826 snail
Cephalopoda
  -
Cephalopoda indet. Cuvier 1797
 Orthocerida - Orthoceratidae
Stelleroidea
  -
"Stelleroidea indet." = Asterozoa
"Stelleroidea indet." = Asterozoa von Zittel 1895
Echinoidea
  -
Echinoidea indet. Leske 1778 sea urchin
Crinoidea
  -
Crinoidea indet. Miller 1821 Sea lily
 Monobathrida - Periechocrinidae
Mandelacrinus nelsoni n. gen. n. sp.
Mandelacrinus nelsoni n. gen. n. sp. Sea lily
 Diplobathrida -
Hyolitha
 Orthothecida -
 Hyolithida - Hyolithidae
Lophophorata
 Tentaculitida - Tentaculitidae
Strophomenata
 Productida - Chonetidae
Chonetes "sp. (a)" Fischer de Waldheim 1830
Chonetes "sp. (c)" Fischer de Waldheim 1830
 Orthotetida - Pulsiidae
 Strophomenida - Strophodontidae
"Strophodonta ? argentina" = Strophomena (Strophodonta)
"Strophodonta ? argentina" = Strophomena (Strophodonta)
Rhynchonellata
 Athyridida - Meristellidae
 Terebratulida - Cryptonellidae
 Terebratulida - Centronellidae
 Terebratulida - Meganterididae
 Spiriferida - Ambocoeliidae
 Spiriferida - Hysterolitidae
 Rhynchonellida - Leptocoeliidae
 Orthida - Orthidae
"Orthis" "sp. (a)" Dalman 1828
Lingulata
 Lingulida - Disciniidae
Craniata
 Craniida - Craniidae
Scyphozoa
  -
 Conulariida - Conulariidae
Anthozoa
  -
Anthozoa indet. Ehrenberg 1834
 Favositida - Micheliniidae
Pleurodictyum "sp. (c)" Goldfuss 1829 tabulate coral
 Stauriida - Zaphrentidae
""Zaphrentis" zebra" = Zaphrenthis
""Zaphrentis" zebra" = Zaphrenthis horn coral
unclassified
  -
Porifera indet. Grant 1836