Gydo Formation (1st Shale), Ceres Area (Devonian of South Africa)

Where: South Africa (33.3° S, 19.4° E: paleocoordinates 60.2° S, 148.1° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Gydo Formation (Bokkeveld Group), Emsian (407.6 - 393.3 Ma)

• Age call from ref. 9618

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: marine; bioturbated mudstone and bioturbated siltstone

• Ref. 9618 gives interpretation of Bokkeveld Group as a series of shallowing-upward packages, with argillaceous unit below and arenaceous unit above. Gydo Formation, as the "first shale", is the lowermost argillaceous unit. The shallowing upward sequence is interpreted as representing environments from the shelf up to deltaic systems. Most fossils come from lower mudstones, often in lenses.
• Ref. 9616 refers only to "shale". Ref. 9617, for formation as a whole, cites "Mudstones and siltstones and minor thin-bedded sandstone, scattered fossiliferous nodules and lenses, lenticular bedding, abundant bioturbation."

Collection methods: Author gives numbers from personal collections, which are said to have some bearing on actual abundances.

Primary reference: R. D. F. Oosthuizen. 1984. Preliminary catalogue and report on the biostratigraphy and palaeogeographic distribution of the Bokkeveld fauna. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa 87:125-140 [M. Foote/M. Foote/M. Foote]more details

Purpose of describing collection: biostratigraphic analysis

PaleoDB collection 35582: authorized by Michael Foote, entered by Michael Foote on 29.12.2003

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

unclassified
  -
Trilobita
 Phacopida - Calmoniidae
 Phacopida - Homalonotidae
Bivalvia
 Cardiidia - Grammysiidae
 Protobranchia - Ctenodontidae
"Ctenodonta" "sp. (d)" Salter 1852 clam
 Protobranchia - Solemyidae
 Protobranchia - Malletiidae
Gastropoda
 Bellerophontida - Bellerophontidae
Bellerophon "sp. (a)" de Montfort 1808 snail
 Murchisoniina - Palaeozygopleuridae
"Loxonema zwartbergense" = Pragozyga zwartbergense
"Loxonema zwartbergense" = Pragozyga zwartbergense Cowper Reed 1925 snail
Cephalopoda
 Orthocerida - Orthoceratidae
"Orthoceras" "sp. (d)" Breynius 1832
Stelleroidea
  -
"Stelleroidea indet." = Asterozoa
"Stelleroidea indet." = Asterozoa von Zittel 1895
Ophiuroidea
 Oegophiurida - Protasteridae
Eugasterella africana n. sp. Jell and Theron 1999 brittle star
Stenuroidea
 Proturina - Eophiuridae
Haughtonaster reedi Rilett 1971
Asteroidea
  - Promopalaeasteridae
Aulacolatiaster breviramus n. gen. n. sp. Jell and Theron 1999 sea star
Stylophora
 Mitrata -
Crinoidea
  -
Crinoidea indet. Miller 1821 Sea lily
Hyolitha
 Orthothecida -
 Hyolithida - Hyolithidae
Hyolithes "sp. (e)" d'Eichwald 1840
Lophophorata
 Tentaculitida - Tentaculitidae
Tentaculites "sp. (d)" von Schlotheim 1820
Brachiopoda
  -
Brachiopoda indet. Cuvier 1805
Strophomenata
 Productida - Chonetidae
 Productida - Eodevonariidae
 Orthotetida - Pulsiidae
Rhynchonellata
 Athyridida - Meristellidae
 Terebratulida - Centronellidae
 Spiriferida - Ambocoeliidae
 Spiriferida - Hysterolitidae
 Rhynchonellida - Leptocoeliidae
Anthozoa
 Stauriida - Zaphrentidae
""Zaphrentis" zebra" = Zaphrenthis, ""Zaphrentis" "sp. (a)"" = Zaphrenthis
""Zaphrentis" zebra" = Zaphrenthis horn coral
""Zaphrentis" "sp. (a)"" = Zaphrenthis Rafinesque and Clifford 1820 horn coral