Gydo Formation (1st Shale), Klaarstroom (Devonian of South Africa)

Where: South Africa (33.3° S, 22.4° E: paleocoordinates 59.3° S, 152.8° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Gydo Formation (Bokkeveld Group), Emsian (407.6 - 393.3 Ma)

• Age call from ref. 9618

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: marine; bioturbated mudstone and bioturbated siltstone

• Ref. 9618 gives interpretation of Bokkeveld Group as a series of shallowing-upward packages, with argillaceous unit below and arenaceous unit above. Gydo Formation, as the "first shale", is the lowermost argillaceous unit. The shallowing upward sequence is interpreted as representing environments from the shelf up to deltaic systems. Most fossils come from lower mudstones, often in lenses.
• Ref. 9616 refers only to "shale". Ref. 9617, for formation as a whole, cites "Mudstones and siltstones and minor thin-bedded sandstone, scattered fossiliferous nodules and lenses, lenticular bedding, abundant bioturbation."

Collection methods: Author gives numbers from personal collections, which are said to have some bearing on actual abundances.

Primary reference: R. D. F. Oosthuizen. 1984. Preliminary catalogue and report on the biostratigraphy and palaeogeographic distribution of the Bokkeveld fauna. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa 87:125-140 [M. Foote/M. Foote/M. Foote]more details

Purpose of describing collection: biostratigraphic analysis

PaleoDB collection 35589: authorized by Michael Foote, entered by Michael Foote on 29.12.2003

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Phacopida - Dalmanitidae
Francovichia "sp. (a)" Branisa 1960 trilobite
 Phacopida - Calmoniidae
 Phacopida - Homalonotidae
 Proetida - Proetidae
Ostracoda indet. Latreille 1802 ostracod
 Cyrtodontida - Praecardiidae
 Ostreida - Pterineidae
 Cardiidia - Sanguinolitidae
 Cardiidia - Grammysiidae
 Protobranchia - Ctenodontidae
"Ctenodonta" "sp. (a)" Salter 1852 clam
"Ctenodonta" "sp. (b)" Salter 1852 clam
 Protobranchia - Malletiidae
 Protobranchia - Nuculanidae
"Nuculana" viator pointed nut clam
"Nuculana" "sp. (a)" Link 1807 pointed nut clam
 Bellerophontida - Plectonotidae
"Bellerophon cf. laticarinatus" = Plectonotus laticarinata
"Bellerophon cf. laticarinatus" = Plectonotus laticarinata Knod 1908 snail
 Murchisoniina - Palaeozygopleuridae
"Loxonema zwartbergense" = Pragozyga zwartbergense
"Loxonema zwartbergense" = Pragozyga zwartbergense Cowper Reed 1925 snail
 Orthocerida - Orthoceratidae
"Stelleroidea indet." = Asterozoa
"Stelleroidea indet." = Asterozoa von Zittel 1895
 Orthothecida -
 Hyolithida - Hyolithidae
 Productida - Eodevonariidae
 Orthotetida - Pulsiidae
 Spiriferida - Ambocoeliidae
 Spiriferida - Hysterolitidae
 Rhynchonellida - Leptocoeliidae
 Conulariida - Conulariidae
 Favositida - Micheliniidae
 Stauriida - Zaphrentidae
""Zaphrentis" zebra" = Zaphrenthis, ""Zaphrentis" "sp. (a)"" = Zaphrenthis
""Zaphrentis" zebra" = Zaphrenthis horn coral
""Zaphrentis" "sp. (a)"" = Zaphrenthis Rafinesque and Clifford 1820 horn coral