Voorstehoek Formation (2nd Shale), Swaarmoed Pass (Devonian of South Africa)

Where: South Africa (33.4° S, 19.5° E: paleocoordinates 65.0° S, 153.9° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Voorstehoek Formation (Bokkeveld Group), Eifelian (393.3 - 387.7 Ma)

• Lowest Eifelilan. Age call from ref. 9618.

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: marine; bioturbated siltstone and bioturbated, silty mudstone

• Ref. 9618 gives interpretation of Bokkeveld Group as a series of shallowing-upward packages, with argillaceous unit below and arenaceous unit above. Voorstehoek Formation is the "second shale", i.e. the second argillaceous unit. The shallowing upward sequence is interpreted as representing environments from the shelf up to deltaic systems. Most fossils come from lower mudstones, often in lenses.
• Ref. 9616 refers only to "shale". Ref. 9617, for formation as a whole, cites "Siltstone, silty mudstone, parallel-laminated, massive, horizontal, ripple- and micro cross laminated, abundant ripple-marks, bioturbation, fossiliferous lenses."

Primary reference: R. D. F. Oosthuizen. 1984. Preliminary catalogue and report on the biostratigraphy and palaeogeographic distribution of the Bokkeveld fauna. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa 87:125-140 [M. Foote/M. Foote/M. Foote]more details

Purpose of describing collection: biostratigraphic analysis

PaleoDB collection 35593: authorized by Michael Foote, entered by Michael Foote on 30.12.2003

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

unclassified
  -
Trilobita
  -
? Trilobita indet. Walch 1771 trilobite
 Phacopida - Dalmanitidae
 Phacopida - Calmoniidae
Bainella sp. Rennie 1930 trilobite
 Phacopida - Homalonotidae
Burmeisteria sp. Salter 1865 trilobite
Bivalvia
  -
"Pelecypoda indet." = Bivalvia
"Pelecypoda indet." = Bivalvia Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Ostreida - Pterineidae
 Cardiidia - Grammysiidae
 Pholadomyida -
 Protobranchia - Ctenodontidae
"Ctenodonta" "sp. (c)" Salter 1852 clam
 Protobranchia - Solemyidae
"Janeia" "sp. (b)" King 1850 Awning Clam
"Janeia" "sp. (a)" King 1850 Awning Clam
 Protobranchia - Malletiidae
 Protobranchia - Nuculanidae
"Nuculana" sp. Link 1807 pointed nut clam
Gastropoda
 Bellerophontida - Plectonotidae
"Bellerophon laticarinatus" = Plectonotus laticarinata
"Bellerophon laticarinatus" = Plectonotus laticarinata Knod 1908 snail
Cephalopoda
 Orthocerida - Orthoceratidae
Stenolaemata
 Trepostomida - Stenoporidae
unclassified
  -
Echinodermata indet. Klein 1754
"carpoids"
Ophiuroidea
  - Cheiropterasteridae
"Hexura weitzi" = Hexuraster weitzi
"Hexura weitzi" = Hexuraster weitzi Spencer 1950 brittle star
 Oegophiurida - Protasteridae
Eugasterella africana n. sp. Jell and Theron 1999 brittle star
Asteroidea
  -
Asteroidea indet. de Blainville 1830 sea star
unclassified
  -
Blastozoa indet. Sprinkle 1973
"cystoids"
Blastoidea
 Blastoidea -
Stylophora
 Mitrata -
Crinoidea
  -
Crinoidea indet. Miller 1821 Sea lily
 Dendrocrinida - Rutkowskicrinidae
Sacrinus gamkaensis n. gen. n. sp.
Sacrinus gamkaensis n. gen. n. sp. Jell and Theron 1999 Sea lily
Hyolitha
 Hyolithida - Hyolithidae
Hyolithes sp. d'Eichwald 1840
Hyolithes "sp. (a)" d'Eichwald 1840
Hyolithes dorbignyi Kozlowski 1923
Lophophorata
 Tentaculitida - Tentaculitidae
Rhynchonellata
 Athyridida - Anoplothecidae
 Terebratulida - Centronellidae
 Spiriferida - Hysterolitidae
Lingulata
 Lingulida - Lingulidae
"Lingula lepta" = Dignomia lepta Clarke 1912