Korytnica Forest (Miocene of Poland)

Also known as Reef 732; Korytnica

Where: Holy Cross Mountains, Poland (50.7° N, 20.5° E: paleocoordinates 51.0° N, 19.3° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: NN5 nannofossil zone, Korytnica Clays Formation, Badenian (13.7 - 12.7 Ma)

• Badenian, Korytnica Clays (upper part of NN5 and lower part of NN6 nannoplancton zones). However, "Recently, RooL & BRANDSTATmR (1993) objected MARTINI'S documentation of the Zone NN6 in the Korytnica sequence and concluded, from the ranges of large foraminifers of the genus Amphistegina, upon an early Badenian age of the Korytnica Clays, precisely the Lower Lagenidae Zone within the foraminifer-based subdivision of the Miocene Stage in the Central Paratethys." (Baluk 1995)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: reef, buildup or bioherm; claystone and limestone

Size class: macrofossils

Collection methods: bulk, mechanical,

Primary reference: J. Stolarski. 1991. Miocene Scleractinia from the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland; I, Caryophyliidae, Flabellidae, Dendrophyliidae, and Micrabaciidae. Acta Geologica Polonica 41(1-2):37-67 [M. Aberhan/S. Nurnberg/S. Nurnberg]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 38823: authorized by Martin Aberhan, entered by Sabine Nürnberg on 06.05.2004, edited by Wolfgang Kiessling, Pete Wagner and Mihaela Krause

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Gastropoda
 Ptenoglossa - Epitoniidae
"Scala (Clathrus) exspectata" = Clathrus2, "Scala (Clathrus) kunstleri" = Clathrus2, "Scala (Clathrus) parilis" = Clathrus2, "Scala (Clathrus) sp." = Clathrus2, Acirsa (Hemiacirsa) oscari2, Acrilla interposita2, Acrilla subreticulata2, Opalia (Pliciscala) scacchii2
"Scala (Clathrus) exspectata" = Clathrus2 wentletrap
"Scala (Clathrus) kunstleri" = Clathrus2 wentletrap
"Scala (Clathrus) parilis" = Clathrus2 wentletrap
"Scala (Clathrus) sp." = Clathrus2 Oken 1815 wentletrap
Acrilla interposita2 wentletrap
 Cocculinoidea - Cocculinidae
 Patellogastropoda - Lepetidae
Propilidium circulare2 Boettger 1901 limpet
 Triphoroidea - Triphoridae
 Triphoroidea - Cerithiopsidae
 Neogastropoda - Olividae
Oliva sp.2 Bruguière 1789 olive snail
 Neogastropoda -
Amalda obsoleta2 Brocchi 1814 snail
Amalda glandiformis2 Lamarck 1810 snail
 Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
Pyrene (Macrurella) nassoides1, Pyrene (Scabrella) sp.1, Pyrene (Alia) polonica1, "Pyrene (Mitrella) bittneri" = Mitrella1, "Pyrene (Mitrella) kostejana" = Mitrella1, "Pyrene (Mitrella) semicaudata" = Mitrella1, "Pyrene (Mitrella) korytnicensis n. sp." = Mitrella1, "Pyrene (Mitrella) perminuta" = Mitrella2, Pyrene (Atilia) fallax1, Anachis subcorrugata1, Anachis terebralis1
Pyrene (Macrurella) nassoides1 snail
(Gratewup 1840
Pyrene (Scabrella) sp.1 Röding 1798 snail
Pyrene (Alia) polonica1 Pusch 1837 dovesnail
(Pusch 1837
"Pyrene (Mitrella) bittneri" = Mitrella1 snail
(Hoernbs and Auinoer 1880
"Pyrene (Mitrella) kostejana" = Mitrella1 snail
(Bolritobr 19(6
"Pyrene (Mitrella) semicaudata" = Mitrella1 snail
(Bbllardi 1849
"Pyrene (Mitrella) korytnicensis n. sp." = Mitrella1 snail
"Pyrene (Mitrella) perminuta" = Mitrella2 snail
Pyrene (Atilia) fallax1 Hörnes and Auinger 1880 snail
(Hobrnbs and Auinoer 1880
Anachis subcorrugata1 snail
(Bojrrtoer 1906
Anachis terebralis1 snail
(Gratbloup 1834
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
Parvisipho (Andonia) transsylvanicus1 true whelk
(Hoernes and Auinoer 1890
Phos hoemesi1 true whelk
Semper 1861
Cantharus exsculptus1 true whelk
(Duiardln 1837
Cantharus subpusillus1 true whelk
(Hobrnes and Auinobr 1890
Cantharus minutulus n. sp.1 true whelk
Euthria adunca1 true whelk
(Bronn 1831
Euthria intermedia1 true whelk
(Michblotti 1839
Euthria puschi1 true whelk
(Anorzbiowski 1830
Euthria friedbergi1 true whelk
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
 Neogastropoda - Melongenidae
Galeodes cornutus1 Agassiz 1843 snail
(Aoassiz 1843)
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
Fusinus hoessii1 snail
(Partsch In Hauer 1837
Fusinus hontensis1 snail
(CsliPreohy Meznbrra 1956
Fusinus prevosti1 snail
(Partsch In HolooiS 1856
Fusinus vindobonensis1 snail
(Hoornes and Auinoer 1890
Latirus valenciennesi1 snail
(Grateloup 1840
Fasciolaria funbriata1 tulip snail
(Brocchi 1814
Fasciolaria tarbelliana1 tulip snail
(Grateloup 1840
Euthriofusus virgineus1 snail
(Grateloup 1833
 Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
 Neogastropoda - Mitridae
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
"Typhis (Typhinellus) tetrapterus" = Typhinellus1, Vitularia linguabovis1, Vitularia linguabovis2, "Coralliophila (Orania) cf. exacuta" = Orania1, "Coralliophila (Orania) cheilotoma" = Orania cheilotoma1, Homalocantha heptagonata1, "Pterynotus (Purpurellus) eyelopterus" = Purpurellus1, "Pterynotus (Purpurellus) cyclopterus" = Purpurellus2, Hadriania eoelata1, Hadriania exeoelata1, Hadriania eredneri1, Hadriania polonica n. sp.1, Ocinebrina recognita2, Hexaplex (Murieanthus) sandhergeri1, Purpura sp.1, Purpura (Tritonalia) erinacea1, Purpura (Tritonalia) granulifera1, Purpura (Tritonalia) kojumdgievae1, Purpura (Tritonalia) confluens2, Purpura (Tritonalia) vindobonensis1, Purpura (Tritonalia) vindobonensis2, Pterynotus (Pterynotus) perlongus1, Pterynotus (Pterynotus) tortuosus2, Aspella (Aspella) anceps1, Aspella (Aspella) typhioides1, "Aspella (Favartia) absona" = Favartia1, "Aspella (Favartia) czjzeki" = Favartia1, "Aspella (Favartia) ineisa" = Favartia1, Hexaplex (Phyllonotus) pomiformis1, "Murex (Bolinus) partsehi" = Bolinus1, "Murex (Bolinus) subtorulcirius" = Bolinus1, "Murex (Bolinus) partschi" = Bolinus2, Murex (Tubieauda) spinieosta1, Murex (Tubicauda) friedbergi1, "Murex (Tubicauda) spinicosta" = Murex (Promurex) spinicosta2, Morula sp.1, Morula valdemari2, "Thais (Stramonita) echinulata" = Stramonita1, Thais (Stramonita) exilis1, Thais (Stramonita) exilis2, Muricopsis eristata1, Coralliophila sp.2, Coralliophila (Pseudomurex) bracteata1, Coralliophila (Coralliophila) gracilispira1, Coralliophila (Coralliophila) serraticincta n. sp.1, ? Magilus ficiformis n. sp.1
"Typhis (Typhinellus) tetrapterus" = Typhinellus1 murex snail
(Bronn 1838
Vitularia linguabovis1 murex snail
(Bastbrot 1825
Vitularia linguabovis2 murex snail
"Coralliophila (Orania) cf. exacuta" = Orania1 murex snail
(Bbllardi 1873
"Coralliophila (Orania) cheilotoma" = Orania cheilotoma1 Hörnes and Auinger 1890 murex snail
(Hobrnbs and Auinoer 1890
Homalocantha heptagonata1 Bronn 1831 murex snail
(Bronn 1831
"Pterynotus (Purpurellus) eyelopterus" = Purpurellus1 murex snail
(Millbt 1866
"Pterynotus (Purpurellus) cyclopterus" = Purpurellus2 murex snail
Hadriania eoelata1 murex snail
(Duiardin 1837
Hadriania exeoelata1 murex snail
(Cossmann and Pbyrot 1924
Hadriania eredneri1 murex snail
(Hobrnes and Aulnobr 1885
Hadriania polonica n. sp.1 murex snail
Ocinebrina recognita2 murex snail
Hexaplex (Murieanthus) sandhergeri1 murex snail
(Hornes 1856
Purpura sp.1 Bruguière 1789 murex snail
Purpura (Tritonalia) erinacea1 murex snail
(Linnaeus 1766
Purpura (Tritonalia) granulifera1 murex snail
(Grateloup 1840
Purpura (Tritonalia) vindobonensis1 Hörnes 1856 murex snail
(Hornes 1856
Purpura (Tritonalia) vindobonensis2 Hörnes 1856 murex snail
Pterynotus (Pterynotus) perlongus1 mustached bat
(Be1laildl 1873
Aspella (Aspella) anceps1 Lamarck 1822 murex snail
(Lamarck 1822
Aspella (Aspella) typhioides1 murex snail
(Maybr 1869
"Aspella (Favartia) absona" = Favartia1 murex snail
(Db Christopori and Jan 1832
"Aspella (Favartia) czjzeki" = Favartia1 murex snail
(Hornbs 1848
"Aspella (Favartia) ineisa" = Favartia1 murex snail
(Brodbrip 1832
Hexaplex (Phyllonotus) pomiformis1 Eichwald 1853 murex snail
(Bichwald 1853
"Murex (Bolinus) partsehi" = Bolinus1 murex snail
Hornes 1856
"Murex (Bolinus) subtorulcirius" = Bolinus1 murex snail
Hoornes and Auingbr 1885
"Murex (Bolinus) partschi" = Bolinus2 murex snail
Murex (Tubieauda) spinieosta1 murex snail
Ronn 1831
Murex (Tubicauda) friedbergi1 murex snail
Cossmann and Pbyrot 1924
"Murex (Tubicauda) spinicosta" = Murex (Promurex) spinicosta2 Bronn 1831 murex snail
Morula sp.1 Schumacher 1817 murex snail
Morula valdemari2 Baluk 2006 murex snail
"Thais (Stramonita) echinulata" = Stramonita1 murex snail
(Pusch 1837
Thais (Stramonita) exilis1 Parsch in Hörnes 1856 murex snail
(Partsch In Hornes 1856
Thais (Stramonita) exilis2 Parsch in Hörnes 1856 murex snail
Muricopsis eristata1 murex snail
(Brocchi 1814
Coralliophila sp.2 Adams and Adams 1853 murex snail
Coralliophila (Pseudomurex) bracteata1 murex snail
(Brocchl 1814
Coralliophila (Coralliophila) gracilispira1 murex snail
Bojrrtoer 1906
? Magilus ficiformis n. sp.1 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Harpidae
Morum (Oniscidia) cythara1 snail
(Brocchi 1814
 Neogastropoda - Mangeliidae
 Neogastropoda - Raphitomidae
"Peratotoma ringicula" = Philbertia2
"Peratotoma ringicula" = Philbertia2 snail
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
 Capuloidea - Capulidae
Capulus ungaricus1 Linnaeus 1758 snail
(Linnaeus 1766
 Stromboidea - Strombidae
"Rostellaria dentata" = Tibia1, "Strombus (Strombus) bonellii" = Persististrombus bonellii1
"Rostellaria dentata" = Tibia1 true conch
Grateloup 1840
"Strombus (Strombus) bonellii" = Persististrombus bonellii1 Brongniart 1823 true conch
Brononiart 1823
 Stromboidea - Aporrhaidae
Aporrhais pespeleeani1 snail
(Linnaeus 1766
 Ficoidea - Ficidae
Ficus (Ficus) condita1 Brongniart 1823 fig shell
(Brongniart 1823
Ficus (Ficus) geometra1 fig shell
(Borson 1825
Ficus (Ficus) cingulata1 Bronn 1856 fig shell
(Bronn In Hornes 1856
 Littorinoidea - Littorinidae
 Vanikoroidea - Vanikoridae
Megalomphalus bicarinatus1 snail
(Boettger 1907
Megalomphalus depressus1 snail
(Boettger 1907
Megalomphalus cf. transsylvanicus1 snail
(Boettger 1901
 Vanikoroidea - Hipponicidae
"Hipponix (Sabia) sulcatus" = Sabia1, "Hipponix (Sabia) phlebsi" = Sabia2, Cheilea inexpectata1
"Hipponix (Sabia) sulcatus" = Sabia1 hoof shell
(Borson 1820
"Hipponix (Sabia) phlebsi" = Sabia2 hoof shell
Cheilea inexpectata1 hoof shell
(Boettger 1907
 Vanikoroidea - Eulimidae
Leiostraca angulatocrassa1 snail
(Sacco 1892
Leiostraca jaskiewiczi n. sp.1 snail
Leiostraca cf. acmeodes1 snail
(Boettger 1907
Thyca (Cyclothyca) sulcosa1 snail
(Brocchi 1814
Melanella (Polygyreulima) jepiana1 snail
(Boettger 1907
Melanella (Polygyreulima) jickelii1 snail
(Boettger 1901
 Velutinoidea - Triviidae
"Trivia (Trivia) cf. sphaericulata" = Trivia sphaericulata1 Lamarck 1810 snail
(Lamarck 1810
Trivia (Trivia) antiquosphaera1 Sacco 1894 snail
Sacco 1894
Cypraeerato yolandae n. sp.4 Fehse and Grego 2012 snail
(Orbigny 1852
"Erato (Erato) elongata" = Erato elongata1 Seguenza 1880 snail
Seguenza 1880
Erato turonica4 Schilder 1933 snail
part of lot id'ed as Erato barrandei
Erato laevilabiata4 Sacco 1894 snail
part of lot id'ed as Erato barrandei
Erato italica4 Schilder 1932 snail
Hoernes and Aurnoer 1880
"Erato (Erato) pernana" = Erato (Eratopsis) pernana1 Sacco 1894 snail
Sacco 1894
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
"Nacca unica n. sp." = Natica (Nacca)1 moon snail
"Nacca unica" = Natica (Nacca)2 moon snail
Sinum striatum1 moon snail
(De Serres 1829
"Natica tigrina" = Cochlis tigrina1 Röding 1798 moon snail
Rooino 1798
"Natica tigrina" = Cochlis tigrina2 Röding 1798 moon snail
Polinices protractus1 moon snail
(Eichwalo 1853
Polinices pseudoredemptus1 moon snail
(Frmobero 1923
Polinices redemptus1 Michelotti 1847 moon snail
(Michelolti 1847
Neverita josephinita1 moon snail
Risso 1826
 Cypraeoidea - Pediculariidae
"Cypropterina (Cypraeotrivia) duclosiana" = Jenneria duclosiana1
"Cypropterina (Cypraeotrivia) duclosiana" = Jenneria duclosiana1 Basterot 1825 Jenner's Cowry
(Basterot 1825
 Cypraeoidea - Eocypraeidae
Apiocypraea sp.1 Schilder 1927 snail
 Cypraeoidea - Ovulidae
Simnia sp.1 Risso 1826 snail
 Cypraeoidea - Cypraeidae
Miolyncina conjungens1, "Monetaria brocchii" = Prozonarina brocchii1, "Prozonarina brongniarti" = Zonarina brogniarti3, Zonarina cf. exglobosa1, Zonarina cf. annularia3, Schilderia taurovalis1, Schilderia semidenticulata1, "Apiocypraea amygdalum" = Schilderia amygdalum2, "Apiocypraea voeslauensis" = Schilderia amygdalum1, "Apiocypraea subamygdalum" = Schilderia amygdalum1
Miolyncina conjungens1 Sacco 1894 cowry
(Sacco 1894
"Monetaria brocchii" = Prozonarina brocchii1 Deshayes 1844 cowry
(Deshayes 1844
"Prozonarina brongniarti" = Zonarina brogniarti3 Schilder 1932 cowry
Part of lot id'ed as Monetaria brocchi
Zonarina cf. exglobosa1 Sacco 1894 cowry
Sacco 1894
Zonarina cf. annularia3 Brongniart 1823 cowry
Part of lot id'ed as Monetaria brocchi
Schilderia taurovalis1 Sacco 1894 cowry
(Sacco 1894
Schilderia semidenticulata1 Sacco 1894 cowry
(Sacco 1894
"Apiocypraea amygdalum" = Schilderia amygdalum2 Brocchi 1814 cowry
"Apiocypraea voeslauensis" = Schilderia amygdalum1 Brocchi 1814 cowry
(Sacco 1894
"Apiocypraea subamygdalum" = Schilderia amygdalum1 Brocchi 1814 cowry
(Orbigny 1852
 Vermetoidea - Vermetidae
Petaloconchus intortus2 Lamarck 1818 worm shell
 Calyptraeoidea - Calyptraeidae
Calyptraea (Bicatillus) irregularis1 slipper shell
(Cossmann and Pevrar 1919
Calyptraea (Calyplraea) chinensis1 Linnaeus 1758 slipper shell
(Linnaeus 1766
Crepiduia (Janacus) crepidula1 Linnaeus 1758 slipper shell
(Linnaeus 1766
Crepiduia (Crepidula) gibbosa1 Defrance 1818 slipper shell
Defrancie 1818
 Xenophoroidea - Xenophoridae
Xenophora deshayesi1 Michelotti 1847 carrier shell
(Michelaiti 1847
 Tonnoidea - Ranellidae
"Cymatium (Lampusia) affine" = Monoplex1, "Cymatium (Lampusia) grundense" = Monoplex1, Charonia (Charonia) nodifera1, "Charonia (Sassia) tarbelliana" = Sassia1, "Charonia (Sassia) apenninica" = Sassia apenninica1, Gyrineum (Aspa) marginatum1, "Argobuccinum (Ranella) giganteum" = Ranella olearium1
"Cymatium (Lampusia) affine" = Monoplex1 triton shell
"Cymatium (Lampusia) grundense" = Monoplex1 triton shell
(Hoornes and Auingbr 1884
Charonia (Charonia) nodifera1 triton
(Lamarck 1822
"Charonia (Sassia) tarbelliana" = Sassia1 triton shell
Grateloup 1847
"Charonia (Sassia) apenninica" = Sassia apenninica1 Sassi 1827 triton shell
(andSsr 1827
Gyrineum (Aspa) marginatum1 triton shell
(Martini 1777
"Argobuccinum (Ranella) giganteum" = Ranella olearium1 Linnaeus 1758 triton shell
(Lamarck 1822
 Tonnoidea - Tonnidae
Malea denticulata1 tun shell
(Dbshayes 1836
 Tonnoidea - Bursidae
"Bursa (Bufonariella) nodosa" = Bursa scrobilator1, Bursa (Bursa) papillosa1
"Bursa (Bufonariella) nodosa" = Bursa scrobilator1 Linnaeus 1758 frog shell
(Borson 1825
Bursa (Bursa) papillosa1 frog shell
(Pusch 1837
 Tonnoidea - Cassidae
Cypraecassis cypraeiformis1, "Cassidaria cingulifera" = Galeodea1, "Semicassis (Semicassis) miolaevigata" = Phalium (Semicassis) miolaevigata1
Cypraecassis cypraeiformis1 snail
(Borson 1820
"Cassidaria cingulifera" = Galeodea1 snail
Hoernes and Auinoer 1884
"Semicassis (Semicassis) miolaevigata" = Phalium (Semicassis) miolaevigata1 Sacco 1890 snail
Sacco 1890
 Rissooidea - Rissoidae
 Truncatelloidea - Caecidae
 Truncatelloidea - Tornidae
Tornus parvillimus2, "Teinostoma (Idioraphe) minimum" = Teinostoma (Idioraphie)2
"Teinostoma (Idioraphe) minimum" = Teinostoma (Idioraphie)2 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Campanilidae
"Cerithium (Thericium) europaeum" = Thericium2, "Cerithium (Thericium) obliquistoma" = Thericium2, "Cerithium (Thericium) miospinosum" = Thericium2
"Cerithium (Thericium) europaeum" = Thericium2 snail
"Cerithium (Thericium) obliquistoma" = Thericium2 snail
"Cerithium (Thericium) miospinosum" = Thericium2 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Potamididae
Pirenella moravica2 horn snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Litiopidae
 Sorbeoconcha - Siliquariidae
 Sorbeoconcha - Planaxidae
Fossarus costatus1 snail
(Brocchi 1814
Couthouyia brandenburgi1 snail
(Boettger 1907
 Sorbeoconcha - Turritellidae
 Sorbeoconcha - Melanopsidae
Melanopsis impressa2 Krauss 1852 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Scaliolidae
 Sorbeoconcha - Cerithiidae
 Allogastropoda - Mathildidae
 Neritoidea - Neritidae
 Architectonicoidea - Architectonicidae
"Architectonica (Pseudotorinia) misera" = Pseudotorinia2 snail
 Turbinoidea - Turbinidae
Cirsonella sp.2, "Teinostoma (Solariorbis) affine" = Solariorbis2, "Teinostoma (Solariorbis) microdiscus" = Solariorbis2, "Astraea (Bolma) mehelyi" = Bolma2, "Astraea (Bolma) meynardi" = Bolma2, "Astraea (Bolma) tuberculata" = Bolma2, "Astraea (Ormastralium) carinata" = Bolma (Ormastralium)2, Astraea (Bolma) granosa2
Cirsonella sp.2 Angas 1877 snail
"Teinostoma (Solariorbis) affine" = Solariorbis2 snail
"Teinostoma (Solariorbis) microdiscus" = Solariorbis2 snail
"Astraea (Bolma) mehelyi" = Bolma2 snail
"Astraea (Bolma) meynardi" = Bolma2 snail
"Astraea (Bolma) tuberculata" = Bolma2 snail
"Astraea (Ormastralium) carinata" = Bolma (Ormastralium)2 snail
Astraea (Bolma) granosa2 Borson 1821 snail
 Turbinoidea - Phasianellidae
 Fissurelloidea - Fissurellidae
Emarginula clathrataeformis2 Eichwald 1853 snail
Diodora italica2 Defrance 1820 snail
Diodora graeca2 Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Trochoidea - Trochidae
Gibbula (Colliculus) boettgeri2 Iljina 1993 top snail
Jujubinus exasperatus2 Pennant 1777 top snail
Anthozoa
 Scleractinia - Micrabaciidae
Stephanophyllia elegans Bronn 1837 stony coral
and several septal fragments
 Scleractinia - Pocilloporidae
Stylophora reussiana5 Montanaro-Gallitelli and Tacoli 1951 stony coral
fragmentary colony
 Scleractinia - Dendrophylliidae
Balanophyllia praelonga Michelotti 1838 stony coral
and several fragments
 Scleractinia - Faviidae
Stylocora exilis5 stony coral
600 fragmentary branches from 4 localities
 Scleractinia - Caryophylliidae
Caryophyllia sp. Lamarck 1801 stony coral
and several fragments
"Acanthocyathus transilvanicus" = Caryophyllia (Acanthocyathus) transilvanicus Reuss 1871 stony coral
Ceratotrochus granulatus stony coral
437 specimens at this locality and Mt. Lysa
Ceratotrochus (Edwardsotrochus) sp. Chevalier 1961 stony coral
numerous fragments
 Scleractinia - Flabellidae
Flabellum roissyanum Milne-Edwards and Haime 1848 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Turbinoliidae
Peponocyathus duncani Reuss 1871 stony coral
Demospongea
 Tetralithistida - Cylindrophymatidae
Melonella (Polygyreulima) spina1 demosponge
(Grateloup 1838
Melonella (Balcis) polita1 demosponge
(Linnaeus 1758
Melonella (Balcis) subdepressa1 demosponge
(Boettger 1901
Melonella (Balcis) cf. colon1 demosponge
(Boettger 1907