Kossiakino 1, near Stavropol (Pliocene of Russian Federation)

Also known as Kosyakino

Where: Stavropol'skaya, Russian Federation (45.0° N, 41.8° E: paleocoordinates 45.2° N, 41.5° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Ruscinian (5.3 - 3.2 Ma)

• a series of fluvio-lacustrine beds, equivalent in age to the Rousillion fauna. Local age of Lower/Middle Aktshagylien, Lower Villafranchian, Upper Pliocene. In Ref 13592 it states the bone beds span the Turolian to Villafranchian and lists the Ruscinian faunas.

Environment/lithology: fluvial-lacustrine

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: L. Gabounia. 1974. A propos du Villafranchian du Caucase. Memoires du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres 78(1):145-148 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 40394: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 23.06.2004

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Faunal list contains fauna from Miocene - Pliocene (original list from Gabounia 1974). Pliocene fauna updated by Vangengeim et al. (1998).
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Aceratherium sp. Kaup 1834 rhinoceros
not in Vangengeim 1998. probably Miocene
Chilotherium sp. Ringström 1924 rhinoceros
not in Vangengeim 1998. probably Miocene
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapirus cf. arvernensis Croizet and Jobert 1828 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Hipparion sp. de Christol 1832 hipparionine horse
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus ex gr. minimus Devéze and Bouillet 1827 bear
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canis sp. Linnaeus 1758 canine
not in Vangengeim 1998.
 Carnivora - Felidae
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Anancus arvernensis Croizet and Jobert 1828 gomphothere
not in Vangengeim 1998. probably Miocene.
 Artiodactyla - Suidae
 Artiodactyla - Giraffidae
Sivatheriinae indet. Zittel 1893 giraffe
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Gazella sp. Blaineville 1816 gazelle
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae
Pseudalces mirandus Flerov 1962 deer