Akhalkalaki 1 (Pleistocene of Georgia)

Also known as Achalkalaki 1

Where: Georgia (42.0° N, 44.1° E: paleocoordinates 42.0° N, 44.2° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Pleistocene (2.6 - 0.0 Ma)

• The bones occur in lenses that include articulated bones and occasional partial skeletons. They are found in a 3-4m thick reworked volcanic ash overlain by clays.

Environment/lithology: lacustrine; ash

• 3-4m thick reworked volcanic ash overlain by clays.

Collection methods: This material was collected by A.K. Vekua between 1957 and 1960.

•Collection total is NISP.

Primary reference: L. Gabounia. 1974. A propos du Villafranchian du Caucase. Memoires du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres 78(1):145-148 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 40398: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 23.06.2004

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

unclassified
  -
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Spermophilus sp.1 Cuvier 1825 ground squirrel
Marmota sp.1 Frisch 1775 marmot
MNI = 9
 Rodentia - Hystricidae
Hystrix sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 porcupine
based on gnaw marks
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Lepus sp. Linnaeus 1758 hare
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Stephanorhinus etruscus1 Falconer 1868 rhinoceros
MNI = 2
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus hipparionoides1 horse
Equus (both together) make up 27.0% of specimens (MNI = 50)
"Equus suessenbornensis" = Equus (Sussemionus) suessenbornensis Wüst 1901 horse
Equus (both together) make up 27.0% of specimens (MNI = 50)
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus sp. Linnaeus 1758 bear
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Lutra sp.1 Brisson 1762 otter
Vormela cf. peregusna1 Güldenstädt 1770 marbled polecat
Meles sp.1 Brisson 1762 badger
 Carnivora - Canidae
? Xenocyon lycaonoides1 Kretzoi 1938 canine
1 corroded distal lower m1 fragment.
 Carnivora - Felidae
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Pachycrocuta brevirostris1 Gervais 1850 brown hyaena
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
"Mammuthus (Archidiskodon) sp." = Mammuthus1, Mammuthus (Mammuthus) aff. trogontherii1
"Mammuthus (Archidiskodon) sp." = Mammuthus1 Brookes 1828 mammoth
evolved form. Mammuthus (both together) make up 1.9% of specimens (MNI 13)
Mammuthus (Mammuthus) aff. trogontherii1 Pohlig 1888 mammoth
Mammuthus (both together) make up 1.9% of specimens (MNI 13)
 Theriiformes -
Erinaceus sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 mammal
 Artiodactyla - Hippopotamidae
Hippopotamus amphibius1 Linnaeus 1758 hippo
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Bos sp. Linnaeus 1758 ox
Bison sp.1 Hamilton-Smith 1827 bison
MNI = 12
? Sinoreas sp.1 Teilhard de Jardin and Trassaert 1938 antelope
proc. cornualis
Capra sp. Linnaeus 1758 goat
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae
Dicotyledonae
 Urticales - Dilleniidae
Celtis glabrata1 hackberry
fruit present.