Akhalkalaki 2 (Pleistocene of Georgia)

Also known as Achalkalaki 2

Where: Georgia (42.0° N, 44.1° E: paleocoordinates 42.0° N, 45.1° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Early/Lower Pleistocene (2.6 - 0.8 Ma)

• Late Lower Pleistocene. The bones occur in lenses that include articulated bones and occasional partial skeletons. They are found in a 3-4m thick reworked volcanic ash overlain by clays. Akhalkalaki 2 is in the upper part of this sequence, and is palaeomagnetically reversed.

Environment/lithology: lacustrine; ash

• loamy sediments with occasional andestic clasts.

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: anthropogenic

Collection methods: Fauna and 1 andesite artefact found in a new excavation in 1998.

Primary reference: H. Hemmer, R.-D. Kahlke, and A. K. Vekua. 2001. The jaguar - Panthera onca gombaszoegensis (Kretzoi, 1938) (Carnivora: Felidae) in the late Lower Pleistocene Akhalkalaki (South Georgia: Transcaucasia) and its evolutionary and ecological significance. Géobios 34(4):475-486 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 40401: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 23.06.2004

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Marmota sp. Frisch 1775 marmot
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Stephanorhinus etruscus Falconer 1868 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
"Equus suessenbornensis" = Equus (Sussemionus) suessenbornensis Wüst 1901 horse
 Carnivora - Canidae
Vulpes sp. Frisch 1775 fox
 Carnivora - Felidae
Homotherium sp. Fabrini 1890 cat
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Bison sp. Hamilton-Smith 1827 bison