Layna, Cerro Pelado (Pliocene of Spain)

Where: Soria, Spain (41.1° N, 2.3° W: paleocoordinates 41.2° N, 2.7° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Ruscinian (5.3 - 3.2 Ma)

• Ruscinian = Alfambrian, MN15, Middle Pliocene.

•Site was found during iron mine prospecting in 1966. It is a karst deposit in Jurassic magnesiferous limestones.

Environment/lithology: karst

• red karst deposit.

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: bulk,

• The mine prospcetors hole was enlarged to 5x4x4 metres and some bones were recovered during this excavation in 1967, Later excavations from 1972 onwards were conducted by dividing the site into 2m squares and sieved.

•Site discoverd by Aguirre and excavated by Crusafont, Aguirre and Michaux.

Primary reference: E. Aguirre and D. Soria. 1981. Accumulated bones in a Pliocene cave in Cerro Pelado, Spain. National Geographic Society Research Reports 13:69-81 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 40548: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 25.06.2004, edited by Torsten Liebrecht and Lars van den Hoek Ostende

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Osteichthyes
 Salientia - Bufonidae
cf. Bufo sp. Laurenti 1768 toad
Reptilia
 Testudines -
"Chelonia indet." = Testudines
"Chelonia indet." = Testudines Batsch 1788 turtle
 Squamata - Varanidae
Varanus sp. Merrem 1820 monitor lizard
 Squamata - Viperidae
Vipera sp.5 Laurenti 1768 viper
1 "tiny" vertebra (MNCN 10031)
Vipera maxima n. sp.5 Szyndlar 1988 viper
1 trunk vertebra (MNCN 10032 = holotype), 19 precaudal vertebrae (MNCN 10033 to 10048)
 Squamata -
 Squamata - Colubridae
cf. Macroprotodon sp.5 Guichenot 1850 false smooth snake
1 "tiny" vertebra (MNCN 10026), a re-identification of Coronella sp. as listed by Jaén & Sanchiz (1985)
cf. Naja sp.5 Laurenti 1768 cobra
no number of specimens given
Malpolon mlynarskii n. sp.5 Szyndlar 1988 colubrid snake
1 anterior braincase (MNCN 10000 = holotype), 27 precaudal vertebrae (MNCN 10001 to 10025)
Mammalia
 Primates - Cercopithecidae
Dolichopithecus ruscinensis Depéret 1889 monkey
 Rodentia - Muridae
Apodemus cf. dominans Eurasian field mouse
Apodemus sp. cf. dominans
Apodemus jeanteti Eurasian field mouse
Castillomys crusafonti Michaux 1969 mouse
Occitanomys brailloni Michaux 1969 mouse
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Sciurus sp. Linnaeus 1758 squirrel
 Rodentia - Gliridae
Eliomys intermedius Priant 1953 dormouse
Hypnomys sp. Bate 1918 Balearic Dormice
 Rodentia - Hystricidae
Hystrix sp. Linnaeus 1758 porcupine
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Lepus sp. Linnaeus 1758 hare
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Hipparion fissurae Crusafont and Sondaar 1971 hipparionine horse
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Episoriculus gibberodon Petenyi 1864 red-toothed shrew
Paenelimnoecus pannonicus2 red-toothed shrew
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus ruscinensis4 bear
1 mandible fragment with M1, 1 lower M2 fragment,
 Carnivora - Canidae
 Carnivora - Felidae
Machairodontinae indet. Gill 1872 cat
Machairodontini indet.
Felinae indet. Trouessart 1885 cat
Felini indet.
Lynx aff. issiodorensis Croizet and Jobert 1828 lynx
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Hyaena donnezani1 Viret 1954 hyaena
Chasmaporthetes lunensis1 Del Campana 1914 hyaena
 Theriiformes -
Erinaceus sp. Linnaeus 1758 mammal
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Leptobos sp. Rütimeyer 1877 antelope