Kyawdaw 2, Pondaung Sandstone (Eocene of Myanmar)

Also known as AMNH A27

Where: Myanmar (22.0° N, 94.5° E: paleocoordinates 13.2° N, 92.8° E)

• coordinate estimated from map

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Pondaung Formation, Bartonian (41.3 - 38.0 Ma)

• The whole sequence of units was originally defined as the ‘Pondaung Sandstones’ by Cotter (1914), but the horizon yielding Eocene vertebrate fossils is now known as the ‘Upper Member’ of the Pondaung Formation (see Maung et al. 2005). The most recent age for this unit is ~39–38 Ma and so it can be regarded as middle Bartonian (see Tsubamoto et al. 2011).

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; brown, yellow sandstone and red, white, yellow siliciclastic

• successive beds of cherry-red, bright buff and cream-white earths interstratified with brown or buff sandstones

Size class: macrofossils

Reposited in the AMNH

• some fossils held at the National Museum of Myanmar

Primary reference: E. Colbert. 1938. Fossil mammals from Burma in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 74:255-436 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 41318: authorized by John Alroy, entered by Erin Leckey on 12.07.2004

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Ducrocq et al., 2000 says that the fauna associated with their artiodactyl "...consists of a creodont, the anthracotheriids Anthracokeryx and Anthracotherium..., tragulids and the perissodactyls Sivatitanops and Metamynodon."
Mammalia
 Perissodactyla - Brontotheriidae
"Titanotheriidae indet." = Brontotheriidae
"Titanotheriidae indet." = Brontotheriidae Marsh 1873 brontothere
 Perissodactyla - Amynodontidae
Paramynodon birmanicus odd-toed ungulate
 Tribosphenida - Helohyidae
"Siamotherium pondaungensis n. sp." = Pakkokuhyus lahirii
"Siamotherium pondaungensis n. sp." = Pakkokuhyus lahirii Pilgrim 1928 placental
fragmentary maxilla with M2-M3
 Artiodactyla -
Anthracokeryx sp., "Anthracothema rubricae" = Anthracotherium pangan
Anthracokeryx sp. Pilgrim and Cotter 1916 even-toed ungulate
"Anthracothema rubricae" = Anthracotherium pangan Pilgrim and Cotter 1916 even-toed ungulate