Locality 1, Head of Quebrada de Portachuelo (Permian of Venezuela)

Where: Merida, Venezuela (8.0° N, 71.3° W: paleocoordinates 5.5° S, 34.4° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Palmarito Formation, Kungurian (279.3 - 272.3 Ma)

• A block of about 1 cubic m slipped into the streambed formed the actual site of collection. Fusulinids and ammonoids (Perrinites hilli) suggest that locality 4 (and underlying localities 1 and 2) are "late Leonardian" (Kungurian) in age.

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: open shallow subtidal; lithified, shelly/skeletal, gray siltstone and lithified, silty limestone

• Shallow, warm water of moderate current activity, probably below wave base. Abundant mud likely baffled by bryozoans but valve asymmetry in brachiopods suggests moderate current/wave activity.
• Petroliferous, dark gray, fossiliferous, fissile siltstone, containing occasional lenses of silty limestone. Essentially a biomicrite although soft-sediment deformation created lenses of packstone.

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: permineralized, replaced with calcite

Collection methods: surface (in situ), mechanical,

• Fossils removed by hand from the weathered rock over an area of about 1 sq m, through a stratigraphic thickness of 0.5 m. Cleaned using S.S. White Airbrasive and other mechanical techniques.

Primary reference: P.R. Hoover. 1981. Paleontology, Taphonomy, and Paleoecology of the Palmarito Formation (Permian of Venezuela). Bulletins of American Paleontology 80(313):1-138 [D. Bottjer/M. Clapham/M. Clapham]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 41505: authorized by David Bottjer, entered by Matthew Clapham on 15.07.2004

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Pholadomyida - Megadesmidae
Megadesmus cf. gryphoides de Koninck 1876 clam
 Trigoniida - Schizodidae
Schizodus canalis Branson 1930 clam
 Euomphalina - Euomphalidae
"Straparollus (Euomphalus) sp." = Euomphalus
"Straparollus (Euomphalus) sp." = Euomphalus Sowerby 1814 snail
 Prosobranchia - Goniasmatidae
"? Taosia sp." = Stegocoelia (Taosia)
"? Taosia sp." = Stegocoelia (Taosia) Girty 1939 snail
 Nautiloidea -
Nautiloidea indet. Agassiz 1847 nautiloid
Coiled forms aff. Titanoceras-Metacoceras-Fordiceras
Bryozoa indet. Ehrenberg 1831
Ramose and encrusting forms
 Fenestrida -
Fenestrida indet. Elias and Condra 1957
Fenestellid forms
 Cryptostomida - Timanodictyidae
Crinoidea indet. Miller 1821 Sea lily
 Productida - Productellidae
Rugatia occidentalis Newberry 1861
Echinauris cf. liumbona Cooper and Grant 1975
? Anemonaria cf. sublaevis King 1931
Reflects minimum estimates based on valve abundances
 Productida - Productidae
Peniculauris subcostata King 1931
n. ssp. latinamericana
Kutorginella cf. umbonata Muir-Wood and Cooper 1960
 Productida - Rugosochonetidae
"Stauromata esoterica n. gen." = Dyoros esoterica
"Stauromata esoterica n. gen." = Dyoros esoterica Hoover 1981
 Athyridida - Neoretziidae
Hustedia sp. Hall and Clarke 1893
 Athyridida - Athyrididae
Composita cf. pilula Cooper and Grant 1976
 Spiriferida - Trigonotretidae
 Spiriferida - Elythidae
Neophricadothyris cf. crassibecca Cooper and Grant 1976
 Stauriida - Lophophyllidiidae
 Stauriida - Lophophyllidae
? Lophophyllidae indet. Grabau 1928 horn coral
Indeterminate lophophyllids?
  - Sostronocrinidae
? Haertocrinus sp. Moore and Plummer 1940
Calyx plate