Locality 11, near head of Quebrada Palmar (Permian of Venezuela)

Where: Merida, Venezuela (8.0° N, 71.4° W: paleocoordinates 5.5° S, 34.5° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Palmarito Formation, Kungurian (279.3 - 272.3 Ma)

• Several exotic blocks. Palmarito Fm contains Perrinites hilli and Parafusulina of Kungurian age.

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: open shallow subtidal; shelly/skeletal, gray, silty packstone and gray, calcareous siltstone

• Shallow, warm water, near wave base, over a soft substrate, in an area subject to periodic storms.
• Thin- to medium-bedded, dense, dark gray, petroliferous fossiliferous silty packstone to grainstone and thinner, fossil-poor calcareous silstone. Limestone contains both relatively unfossiliferous biomicrite and very fossiliferous muddy calcarenite (packstone/grainstone).

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: replaced with silica

Collection methods: bulk, chemical, mechanical,

• Prepared by HCl etching, dried silt removed by air abrasion. Hustedia and Composita rare in calcareous siltstone, interpreted as generalist early colonizers.

Primary reference: P.R. Hoover. 1981. Paleontology, Taphonomy, and Paleoecology of the Palmarito Formation (Permian of Venezuela). Bulletins of American Paleontology 80(313):1-138 [D. Bottjer/M. Clapham/M. Clapham]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 41516: authorized by David Bottjer, entered by Matthew Clapham on 15.07.2004

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Bivalvia
 Arcida - Parallelodontidae
Parallelodon sp. Meek and Worthen 1866 clam
 Pectinida - Streblochondriidae
Guizhoupecten sp. Chen 1962 scallop
Streblochondria sp. Newell 1938 scallop
 Pectinida - Aviculopectinidae
Aviculopecten sp. M'Coy 1851 scallop
 Pectinida - Pseudomonotidae
Pseudomonotis sp. von Beyrich 1862 scallop
Pegmavalvula cf. gloveri Newell and Boyd 1970 scallop
 Carditida - Astartidae
Astartella sp. Hall 1858 clam
 Cardiidia - Sanguinolitidae
Sanguinolites sp. M'Coy 1844 clam
 Cardiida - Kalenteridae
Pseudopermophorus sp. Ciriacks 1963 clam
 Nuculida - Nuculidae
Nuculopsis sp. Girty 1912 nut clam
Gastropoda
  -
Gastropoda indet. Cuvier 1797 snail
Holopeiform, and new high-spired genus
 Euomphalina - Euomphalidae
Cylicioscapha sp., "Straparollus (Euomphalus) aff. kaibabensis" = Euomphalus kaibabensis
Cylicioscapha sp. Yochelson 1956 snail
"Straparollus (Euomphalus) aff. kaibabensis" = Euomphalus kaibabensis Chronic 1952 snail
 Euomphalina - Anomphalidae
Anomphalus sp. Meek and Worthen 1866 snail
 Euomphalina - Microdomatidae
Glyptospira sp. Chronic 1952 snail
 Prosobranchia - Meekospiridae
? Meekospira sp. Ulrich and Scofield 1897 snail
 Prosobranchia - Goniasmatidae
"Taosia sp." = Stegocoelia (Taosia), "aff. Taosia sp." = Stegocoelia (Taosia)
"Taosia sp." = Stegocoelia (Taosia) Girty 1939 snail
"aff. Taosia sp." = Stegocoelia (Taosia) Girty 1939 snail
New genus aff. Taosia
 Prosobranchia - Orthonematidae
Orthonema sp. Meek and Worthen 1862 snail
cf. Orthonema sp. Meek and Worthen 1862 snail
New genus allied to Orthonema
 Prosobranchia - Palaeostylidae
Kinishbia sp. Winters 1956 snail
 Neritoidea - Naticopsidae
"Colpites" sp. Knight 1936 snail
 Murchisoniina - Gosseletinidae
Apachella sp. Winters 1956 snail
Apachella aff. franciscana Chronic 1952 snail
Glyptotomaria sp. Knight 1945 snail
 Murchisoniina - Soleniscidae
Cylindritopsis sp. Gemmellaro 1889 snail
Originally listed as Oncochilus
 Pleurotomariacea -
"Pleurotomariacea indet." = Pleurotomarioidea
"Pleurotomariacea indet." = Pleurotomarioidea Swainson 1840 snail
New open-coiled vermitiform genus
Cephalopoda
 Pseudorthocerida - Pseudorthoceratidae
cf. Mooreoceras sp. Miller et al. 1933
Polyplacophora
  -
Polyplacophora indet. de Blainville 1816 chiton
Plates
Bryozoa
  -
Bryozoa indet. Ehrenberg 1831
Ramose forms
Stenolaemata
 Fenestrida -
Fenestrida indet. Elias and Condra 1957
Fenestellid forms
Crinoidea
  -
Crinoidea indet. Miller 1821 Sea lily
Columnals
Strophomenata
 Productida - Aulostegidae
cf. Ramavectus sp. Stehli 1954
Rhamnariidae cf. Ramavectus
 Productida - Productellidae
Rugatia intermedia Hoover 1981
Echinauris cf. lappacea Cooper and Grant 1975
? Anemonaria cf. sublaevis King 1931
Reflects minimum estimate based on valve ratios
 Productida - Productidae
? Spinifrons cf. grandicosta Hoover 1981
cf. grandicosta n. sp.
Kutorginella cf. umbonata Muir-Wood and Cooper 1960
 Productida - Linoproductidae
? Holotricharina "sp. A" Cooper and Grant 1975
 Orthotetida - Derbyiidae
Derbyia cf. filosa Cooper and Grant 1974
 Orthotetida - Meekellidae
Meekella skenoides Girty 1909
Rhynchonellata
 Athyridida - Neoretziidae
 Athyridida - Athyrididae
Composita cf. pilula Cooper and Grant 1976
 Terebratulida - Cryptonellidae
 Rhynchonellida - Pontisiidae
Pontisia stehlii Cooper and Grant 1969
Anthozoa
 Stauriida - Lophophyllidiidae
Lophophyllidium sp. Grabau 1928 horn coral
Demospongea
 Agelasida - Sebargasiidae
? Amblysiphonella sp. Steinmann 1882 demosponge
 Agelasida - Colospongiidae
Colospongia monilis Rigby 1984 demosponge
Possibly present
Hexactinellida
  -
Hexactinellida indet. Schmidt 1870 glass sponge
Root tufts
Heteractinida
 Octactinellida - Wewokellidae
Wewokella solida Girty 1911