Toca da Esperanca (Pleistocene of Brazil)

Where: Bahia, Brazil (11.0° S, 42.1° W: paleocoordinates 11.0° S, 42.1° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

When: Middle Pleistocene (0.8 - 0.1 Ma)

• Radioisotopic_date error method comments

•0.259 0.062 U-Th on bone

•0.291 0.084 U-Th on bone

•0.218 0.061 U-Th on bone

•0.204 0.034 U-Th on bone

• bed/horizon: Couche IV

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: cave; red, argillaceous sandstone

• "Couche IV" is the basal unit in sequence; a "reddish clayey sand" deposit within a karstic cave; Middle Pleistocene age is based on dates; two additional, highly imprecise U-Th dates are omitted

Size class: macrofossils

• "tres fragmentee" (breakage attributed to human action)

Collection methods: quarrying

Primary reference: H. Lumley, M.-A. Lumley, M. C. Moraes Coutinho Beltrao, Y. Yokoyama, J. Labeyrie, J. Danon, G. Delibrias, C. Falgueres, and J. L. Bischoff. 1987. L'Anthropologie 91:917-942 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: archaeological analysis

PaleoDB collection 71295: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 10.02.1999

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• fossils found with supposedly human lithic assemblage made of quartz

•list and most other data repeated by Lumley et al. 1988

 Rodentia - Cuniculidae
"Agouti paca" = Cuniculus paca
"Agouti paca" = Cuniculus paca Linnaeus 1766 lowland paca
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Hippidion sp. Owen 1869 horse
 Xenarthra - Dasypodidae
Propraopus sulcatus Lund 1838 armadillo
 Xenarthra - Pampatheriidae
Pampatherium humboldtii Lund 1839 edentate
"Pampatherium humboldti"
 Xenarthra - Megatheriidae
Eremotherium laurillardi Lund 1842 edentate
 Xenarthra - Mylodontidae
Scelidotherium sp. Owen 1839 edentate
 Artiodactyla - Tayassuidae
Tayassu pecari Link 1795 white-lipped peccary
"T. albirostris"
 Artiodactyla - Camelidae
Palaeolama sp. Gervais 1869 camel
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae
Mazama sp. Rafinesque 1817 brocket deer