Hamilton Cave (Pleistocene of the United States)

Where: Pendleton County, West Virginia (38.6° N, 79.4° W: paleocoordinates 38.6° N, 79.2° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

When: Pleistocene (2.6 - 0.0 Ma)

Environment/lithology: cave; claystone

• "Many fossils of terrestrial vertebrates have been excavated from the cave’s clay floor. The fossils are found in the top 75 cm of this clay."

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: F. Grady. 1991. Fossil Chiroptera From Two West Virginia Caves. The National Speleological Society Bulletin 53(2):122 [M. Uhen/M. Shalap/M. Shalap]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 123875: authorized by Mark Uhen, entered by Margaret Shalap on 01.02.2012, edited by Mark Uhen

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Salientia - Hylidae
Hyla crucifer4 tree frog
 Salientia - Ranidae
Rana pipiens4 Schreber 1782 Northern leopard frog
 Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo americanus4, "Bufo woodhousii" = Bufo woodhousei4
Bufo americanus4 Holbrook 1836 American toad
"Bufo woodhousii" = Bufo woodhousei4 Girard 1854 Woodhouse's toad
Subspecies fowleri
 Caudata - Urodela
Desmognathus ochrophaeus4 Cope 1859 lungless salamander
Desmognathus fuscus4 Rafinesque 1820 Northern dusky salamander
Desmognathus monticola4 Dunn 1916 Seal salamander
Gyrinophilus sp.4 Cope 1869 lungless salamander
Gyrinophilus porphyriticus4 Green 1827 lungless salamander
Notophthalmus viridescens4 Rafinesque 1820 Eastern newt
"Ambystoma jeffersonianum" = Amblystoma4 mole salamander
Ambystoma tigrinum4 Green 1825 tiger salamander
Ambystoma opacum4 Gravenhorst 1807 Marbled salamander
"Ambystoma maculatum" = Amblystoma maculatum4 Shaw 1802 Spotted salamander
Cryptobranchus sp.4 Leuckart 1821 hellbender
 Theriamorpha - Soricidae
Sorex sp.2 Linnaeus 1758 long-tailed shrew
Sorex cf. cinereus2 Kerr 1792 cinereus shrew
Blarina cf. brevicauda2 Say 1823 northern short-tailed shrew
 Theriamorpha - Talpidae
Condylura crystata2 star-nosed mole
 Carnivora - Felidae
Smilodon gracilis1 Cope 1880 saber-toothed cat
Smilodon fatalis1 Leidy 1868 saber-toothed cat
 Artiodactyla - Tayassuidae
Platygonus compressus2 Leconte 1848 peccary
 Chiroptera - Molossidae
Tadarida cf. brasiliensis Geoffroy 1824 Mexican free-tailed bat
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Lasiurus borealis Muller 1776 hairy-tailed bat
Pipistrellus subflavus Cuvier 1832 eastern pipistrelle bat
Myotis sp. Kaup 1829 vesper bat
Eptesicus fuscus Beauvois 1796 big brown bat
Plecotus sp. Geoffroy 1818 vesper bat
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Glaucomys sp.2 Thomas 1908 flying squirrel
Spermophilus sp.2 Cuvier 1825 ground squirrel
Tamias striatus2 Linnaeus 1758 eastern chipmunk
Marmota monax2 Linnaeus 1758 groundhog
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus2 Erxleben 1777 American red squirrel
 Rodentia - Geomyidae
Thomomys cf. potomacensis2 Gidley and Gazin 1933 pocket gopher
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Dipoides sp.3 Jaeger 1835 beaver
Castor canadensis3 Kuhl 1820 American beaver
Castor canadensis2 Kuhl 1820 American beaver
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Neotoma spelaea2 Gidley and Gazin 1933 pack rat
"Neotoma magister" = Neotoma floridana2 Ord 1818 eastern woodrat
Synaptomys sp.2 Baird 1858 mouse
Synaptomys cooperi2 Baird 1858 southern bog lemming
"Clethrionomys sp." = Myodes2 Pallas 1811 vole
Clethrionomys gapperi2 Vigors 1830 southern red-backed vole
Lasiopodomys deceitensis2 Guthrie and Matthews 1971 vole
Phenacomys brachyodus2 Repenning and Grady 1988 vole
Allophaiomys pliocaenicus2 Kormos 1932 vole
Microtus xanthognathus2 Leach 1815 taiga vole
Microtus pennsylvanicus2 Ord 1815 meadow vole
Microtus paroperarius2 Hibbard 1944 vole
"Pitymys hibbardi" = Microtus hibbardi2 Holman 1959 vole
Ondatra annectens5 Brown 1908 muskrat
Ondatra annectens2 Brown 1908 muskrat
Mimomys virginianus2 Repenning and Grady 1988 vole
"Atopomys salvelinus" = Atopomys texensis2 Patton 1965 mouse
Peromyscus sp.2 Gloger 1841 deer mouse
Peromyscus cumberlandensis2 Guilday and Handley 1967 deer mouse
 Rodentia - Zapodidae
Napaeozapus sp.2 Miller 1900 jumping mouse
Zapus sp.2 Coues 1876 jumping mouse
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
cf. Sylvilagus sp.2 Gray 1867 cottontail rabbit
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Ochotona sp.2 Link 1795 pika
 Squamata - Scincidae
Eumeces laticeps4 Schneider 1801 Broadhead skink
Eumeces fasciatus4 Linnaeus 1758 five-lined skink
 Squamata - Crotalidae
Crotalus horridus4 Linnaeus 1758 timber rattlesnake
 Squamata - Colubridae
Thamnophis sp.4 Fitzinger 1843 garter snake
Carphophis amoenus4 Say worm snake
Storeria sp.4 Baird and Girard 1853 brown snake
Coluber constrictor4 Linnaeus 1758 black racer
Lampropeltis triangulum4 Lacépède 1788 milk snake
Elaphe sp.4 Wagler 1833 colubrid snake
Nerodia sipedon4 Linnaeus 1758 northern water snake
 Squamata - Iguanidae
Sceloporus undulatus4 Bosc 1802 eastern fence lizard
 Testudines - Emydidae
Emydidae indet.4 Rafinesque 1815 turtle