Cerro Observatorio (Miocene of Argentina)

Also known as Monte Observación of Ameghino

Where: Santa Cruz, Argentina (50.6° S, 69.1° W: paleocoordinates 51.2° S, 63.4° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Santa Cruz Formation, Santacrucian (17.5 - 16.3 Ma)

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; lithology not reported

Size class: mesofossils

Primary reference: S. F. Vizcaíno, R. F. Kay, and M. S. Bargo. 2012. Background for a paleoecological study of the Santa Cruz Formation (late Early Miocene) on the Atlantic Coast of Patagonia. In S. F. Vizcaí­no, R. F. Kay, M. S. Bargo (eds.), Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation 1-22 [J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 176570: authorized by Jelle Zijlstra, entered by Jelle Zijlstra on 17.02.2016, edited by Miranta Kouvari, Grace Varnham and Kateryn Pino

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Reptilia
 Squamata - Colubridae
"Colubridae" indet.8 Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
MACN-PV SC3315-9, incomplete trunk vertebrae
Mammalia
  -
Mammalia indet.13 Linnaeus 1758 mammal
MACN-A 7781, distal humerus, labeled as "Plagiocoelus? latus". According to McDonald et al. (2008), "It appears that this species was never formally described. The specimen cannot be assigned to Plagiocoelus and is probably not a vermilinguan."
Plagiocoelus obliquus n. gen. n. sp.13 Ameghino 1894 mammal
MACN-A 7780, distal humerus
 Sparassodonta - Borhyaenidae
"Prothylacynus patagonicus" = Prothylacynus patagonicus10, "Borhyaena excavata n. sp." = Prothylacynus patagonicus10, Borhyaena tuberata14
"Prothylacynus patagonicus" = Prothylacynus patagonicus10 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
MACN 670, M2
"Borhyaena excavata n. sp." = Prothylacynus patagonicus10 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
MACN 649, canine, lectotype
Borhyaena tuberata14 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
 Sparassodonta -
Perathereutes pungens n. gen. n. sp.11, "Sipalocyon pusillus n. sp." = Pseudonotictis pusillus11, "Cladosictis patagonica" = Cladosictis patagonica11, "Protoproviverra ensidens n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica11, "Ictioborus fenestratus n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica11, "Agustylus minus n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica11, Anatherium defossus n. gen. n. sp.11, "Sipalocyon gracilis n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis11, "Amphiproviverra minuta n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis11, "Perathereutes amputans n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis11, "Perathereutes obtusus n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis11, "Protoproviverra obusta n. sp." = Sipalocyon obusta11
Perathereutes pungens n. gen. n. sp.11 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
MACN-A 684, dentary m1-4, holotype
"Sipalocyon pusillus n. sp." = Pseudonotictis pusillus11 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
MACN 666, right dentary, holotype
"Cladosictis patagonica" = Cladosictis patagonica11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 639, C; MACN 640, C; MACN 641, maxillary M1; MACN 673, dentary c-m4; MACN 674, dentary p3-m4; MACN 675a, dentary right m1-2, left m1-3; MACN 690, maxillary P3; MACN 9350, mailla P2-M4; MACN 9351, mandible m2-3
"Protoproviverra ensidens n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 689, dentary p1-3
"Ictioborus fenestratus n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 664, dentary p2, m2-3
"Agustylus minus n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 671, dentary m2-4; MACN 672, dentary m2-4 (same individual, both form the holotype)
Anatherium defossus n. gen. n. sp.11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 646, dentary p3, m3; MACN 669, dentary p2, holotype
"Sipalocyon gracilis n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 667, dentary c-p2; MACN 668, dentary m1-3; MACN 6286, dentary p2-3; MACN 647, mandible p2-m2, holotype; MACN 688, maxilla P1; MACN 704, maxilla M2-3
"Amphiproviverra minuta n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 685, partial M2
"Perathereutes amputans n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 682, dentary m1-3
"Perathereutes obtusus n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 683, dentary m1-2
"Protoproviverra obusta n. sp." = Sipalocyon obusta11 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
MACN 686, dentary m1-2, m4; 687, dentary fragment; both are one individual
 Microbiotheria - Microbiotheriidae
"Prodidelphys acicula n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula12, "Prodidelphys pavita n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula12, "Prodidelphys obtusa n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula12, "Microbiotherium tehuelchum" = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12, "Halmarhiphus didelpoides n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12, "Phonocdromus patagonicus n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12, "Eodidelphys fortis n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12, "Hadrorhynchus tortor n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12, "Hadrorhynchus torvus n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12, "Microbiotherium forticulum n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12, "Eodidelphys famula n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12, "Microbiotherium patagonicum" = Microbiotherium patagonicum12, "Hadrorhynchus conspicuus n. sp." = Microbiotherium patagonicum12, "Stylognathus diprotodontoides n. sp." = Microbiotherium patagonicum12
"Prodidelphys acicula n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula12 Ameghino 1891 marsupial
MACN 5735, dentary c-m1, type; MACN 5727, dentary p3-m4, syntype (but not lectotype) of _Stylognathus diprotodontoides_
"Prodidelphys pavita n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula12 Ameghino 1891 marsupial
MACN 5736, dentary p1-3, type
"Prodidelphys obtusa n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula12 Ameghino 1891 marsupial
MACN 5737, dentary c, type
"Microbiotherium tehuelchum" = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5724, dentary p3; 5726, dentary p3; 5730, dentary p3-m1, m3-4; 5731, dentary m1, m3; 5733, dentary p2-m3; 5734, dentary c-p3; (coll. 1890-91); 8477, dentary p2-m2; 8478, dentary m2 (coll. 1891-92); 8475, dentary p3-m4; 8476, dentary p1-3, m1 talonid; 8506, dentary p1-m4; 8507, dentary m2-4 (coll. 1892-93); and types of synonyms
"Halmarhiphus didelpoides n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5716, dentary m1-2
"Phonocdromus patagonicus n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5741, dentary
"Eodidelphys fortis n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5729, dentary p1-m4
"Hadrorhynchus tortor n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5738, dentary p3
"Hadrorhynchus torvus n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5739, dentary p2-3
"Microbiotherium forticulum n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5725, dentary p1-m1
"Eodidelphys famula n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5732, dentary p1-m4
"Microbiotherium patagonicum" = Microbiotherium patagonicum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5721, dentary m2-3 (syntype of _Halmarhiphus nanus_); MACN 5704, dentary m3-4 (?syntype of _Garzonia annectens_)
"Hadrorhynchus conspicuus n. sp." = Microbiotherium patagonicum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5740, dentary p2-m1, type
"Stylognathus diprotodontoides n. sp." = Microbiotherium patagonicum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5728, dentary m2-4, lectotype
 Paucituberculata - Pichipilidae
Phonocdromus gracilis12 Ameghino 1894 marsupial
MACN 5722, dentary p3
 Paucituberculata - Palaeothentidae
Propalaeothentes lepidus5 Bown and Fleagle 1993 marsupial
SC-2903
"Acdestis owenii" = Acdestis oweni1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
Acdestis lemairei1 Bown and Fleagle 1993 marsupial
Palaeothentes pascuali1 Bown and Fleagle 1993 marsupial
Palaeothentes aratae1 Moreno 1882 marsupial
Palaeothentes intermedius1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
Palaeothentes minutus1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
Palaeothentes lemoinei1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
 Paucituberculata - Abderitidae
Abderites meridionalis1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN-A 5542, dentary m1-4; MACN-A 2037, dentary p3-m4
 Paucituberculata - Caenolestidae
"Stilotherium dissimile" = Stilotherium dissimile12, "Halmarhiphus nanus n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12, "Garzonia annectens n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12, "Garzonia typica n. gen. n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12, "Garzonia minima n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12, "Pichipilus exilis n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12
"Stilotherium dissimile" = Stilotherium dissimile12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5701, dentary p2, m1-3; 5702, dentary p1-2, m1-2; 5710, dentary m1-3; 5723, dentary p2-3, parts of m1-2 (coll. 1890-91); 8456, dentary m2-4 (coll. 1891-92)
"Halmarhiphus nanus n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5720, dentary m2-3
"Garzonia annectens n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5703, dentary m1-4
"Garzonia typica n. gen. n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5700, dentary p2-3, m1-2
"Garzonia minima n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5709, dentary m2-4
"Pichipilus exilis n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5698, dentary m3
 Megatherioidea - Megalonychidae
Hapalops sp.4 Ameghino 1887 edentate
YPM-VPPU 15836, postcrania
 Xenarthra -
Adiastaltus procerus n. sp.13 Ameghino 1894 edentate
MACN A-7779, distal humerus
 Cingulata - Peltephilidae
Peltephilus ferox16 Ameghino 1891 edentate
MACN-A 4901, skull
Anantiosodon rarus16 Ameghino 1891 edentate
MACN-A 5119, mandible
 Cingulata - Chlamyphoridae
Stenotatus patagonicus16 Ameghino 1887 edentate
MACN-A 4874–4875, mandible and osteoderms; MACN-A 7801–7802, fragment of mandible and osteoderms
Stenotatus cf. patagonicus16 Ameghino 1887 edentate
MACN-Pv Sc406, skull, postcrania
Stenotatus hesternus16 Ameghino 1889 edentate
MACN-A 4873, carapace and bone fragments
 Cingulata - Dasypodidae
"Proeutatus deleo" = Eutatus deleo16, "Proeutatus carinatus" = Eutatus carinatus16
"Proeutatus deleo" = Eutatus deleo16 Ameghino 1891 armadillo
MACN-A 4800–4802, mandible, osteoderms, molariform
"Proeutatus carinatus" = Eutatus carinatus16 Ameghino 1891 armadillo
MACN-A 8041–8042, carapace fragment and osteoderms
 Cingulata - Propalaehoplophoridae
"Eucinepeltus petesatus n. gen. n. sp." = Encinepeltus petesatus16
"Eucinepeltus petesatus n. gen. n. sp." = Encinepeltus petesatus16 Ameghino 1891 edentate
MACN-A 4758, skull; 4760, mandible; 4761, mandible
 Xenarthra -
Anathitus revelator n. gen. n. sp.13
Anathitus revelator n. gen. n. sp.13 Ameghino 1894 edentate
"Type = MACN A-7782 distal right humerus (pathological), A-7783 lumbar (missing)"
 Panameriungulata - Proterotheriidae
Thoatherium minusculum6 Ameghino 1887 placental
MACN-A 2958, mandible
"Anisolophus australis" = Proterotherium australe6 Burmeister 1879 placental
MACN-A 2832, tibia
Diadiaphorus majusculus6 Ameghino 1887 placental
MACN-A 9137, cranium
 Panameriungulata - Macraucheniidae
Theosodon lydekkeri6 Ameghino 1887 placental
MACN-A 2545–57, tibia; 9252–53, tibia
 Rodentia - Chinchillidae
Prolagostomus sp.15 Ameghino 1887 chinchilid
 Rodentia -
Acarechimys sp.3, Acarechimys minutus3, "Acarechimys minutissimus" = Acarechimys minutissimus3, "Sciamys tenuissimus" = Acarechimys minutissimus3, "Stichomys diminutus n. sp." = Acarechimys minutissimus3, Acarechimys gracilis3, Acarechimys constans3
Acarechimys sp.3 Patterson 1965 caviomorph
MACN-A 4062, MACN-A 4067
Acarechimys minutus3 Patterson and Pascual 1967 caviomorph
MACN-A 4072a, MACN-A 4073
"Acarechimys minutissimus" = Acarechimys minutissimus3 Ameghino 1887 caviomorph
MACN-A 4072b, MACN-A 4265, MACN-A 4266
"Sciamys tenuissimus" = Acarechimys minutissimus3 Ameghino 1887 caviomorph
MACN-A 4145,6 (syntype Sciamys tenuissimus)
"Stichomys diminutus n. sp." = Acarechimys minutissimus3 Ameghino 1887 caviomorph
MACN-A 4265
Acarechimys gracilis3 Ameghino 1891 caviomorph
MACN-A 4060, MACN-A 4068
Acarechimys constans3 Ameghino 1887 caviomorph
MACN-A 4058, MACN-A 4061, MACN-A 4064, MACN-A 4074MACN-A 4075
 Rodentia - Acaremyidae
Acaremys murinus2 Ameghino 1887 caviomorph
MACN PV SC1694, SC1831
Acaremys tricarinatus n. sp.2 Ameghino 1894 caviomorph
MACN A 4113, holotype
 Primates - Homunculidae
"Homunculus patagonicus" = Homunculus patagonicus9, "Pitheculus australis n. gen. n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus9, "Stilotherium grande n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus9
"Homunculus patagonicus" = Homunculus patagonicus9 Ameghino 1891 monkey
MACN-A 5969, left mandible with ascending ramus and partial condyle with m2 and alveolus for m3; MACN-A 10403, dentary m1-2; MACN SC 1149, m2? (Stake 147); 274, M3; 275, C; 332, incisor (Stake 22); 334, M2 (Stake 13); 335, C (Stake 2); 336, dentary m1-2 (Stake 28); 337, M2 (Stake 19); 338, m1 (Stake 69); 339, dentary m1-2 (Stake 69); 341, m1 (Stake 29); 402, c (Stake 110); 2916, P3 (Stake 206); 2918, m2 (Stake 206); 3026, p4 (Stake 7); 3089, I1; 3090, m2?; 3112, M2 (Stake 19); 3114, i1 (Stake 19); 3200, m2; 3116, p2 (Stake 25); 342, M2 (Stake 54)
"Pitheculus australis n. gen. n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus9 Ameghino 1891 monkey
MACN-A 5966, left mandibular fragment with m2, type
"Stilotherium grande n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus9 Ameghino 1891 monkey
MACN-A 8648, right dp4
 Notoungulata - Interatheriidae
Protypotherium praerutilum7 Ameghino 1887 notoungulate
Protypotherium compressidens7 Ameghino 1891 notoungulate
Protypotherium australe7 Moreno 1882 notoungulate
 Notoungulata - Hegetotheriidae
Pachyrukhos sp.15 Ameghino 1885 notoungulate
 Notoungulata - Toxodontidae
Adinotherium sp.6 Ameghino 1887 notoungulate
AMNH 9532, cranium