Caryocrinites sphaeroidalis Community, Laurel Limestone Units 2 & 3, SE Indiana (Silurian of the United States)

Where: Indiana (39.4° N, 85.6° W: paleocoordinates 27.6° S, 51.7° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Laurel Limestone Formation, Wenlock (433.4 - 427.4 Ma)

• "Laurel Limestone, units 2 and 3 of Frest (1975). The Tennessee equivalent, a part of the upper Maddox Member, Wayne Formation, is within the Kockelella ranuliformis and amsdeni conodont Zones as defined by Barrick and Klapper (1976) and Barrick (1983)."

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: deep subtidal; shelly/skeletal grainstone and shelly/skeletal, argillaceous, cherty/siliceous wackestone

• "Most likely it represents a middle to outer BA 2 to middle BA 3 community, i.e. at or slightly abov e effective wave base. No bioherms or carbonate buildups occur in association with this community."

•SEP environmental call based on given information and knowledge of regional geology. Shallower than typical "deep subtidal" IMO, but doesn't really fit stated description of of shallow subtidal and is probably just below normal wave base for the most part.

• "The dominant lithology is an echinoderm grainstone with occasional wackestone and packstone intervals, some cherty. Generally very little siliciclastic mud is present, but there may be as much as 10% locally. Bedding is thin, 1-5 cm, and winnowed debris layers are common.."

Primary reference: T. J. Frest, C. E. Brett, and B. J. Witzke. 1999. Caradocian-Gedinnian echinoderm associations of Central and Eastern North America. Paleocommunities--a case study from the Silurian and Lower Devonian 638-783 [M. Foote/K. Koverman/P. Wagner]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 26700: authorized by Michael Foote, entered by Michael Foote on 24.10.2002

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Phacopida - Calymenidae
Calymenidae indet. Milne-Edwards 1840 trilobite
 Athyridida - Meristidae
Merista sp. Suess 1851
 Athyridida - Meristellidae
"? Cryptothyrella sp." = Hindella
"? Cryptothyrella sp." = Hindella Davidson 1882
 Atrypida - Atrypidae
Atrypa sp. Dalman 1828
 Rhynchonellida - Machaerariidae
Ferganella sp. Nikiforova 1937
Bryozoa indet. Ehrenberg 1831
  - Cyclocystoididae
Sievertsia sp. Smith and Paul 1982
Polytryphocycloides sp. Smith and Paul 1982
 Coronata -
Coronata indet. Jaekel 1918
 Fissiculata - Phaenoschismatidae
Decaschisma sp. Fay 1961
 Rhombifera - Caryocrinitidae
 Disparida -
 Pisocrinida - Pisocrinidae
Pisocrinus (Pisocrinus) spp. de Koninck 1858 Sea lily
 Calceocrinida - Calceocrinidae
Calceocrinus sp. Hall 1852 Sea lily
 Sagenocrinida -
 Sagenocrinida - Lecanocrinidae
 Cyathocrinida - Thalamocrinidae
Thalamocrinus sp. Miller and Gurley 1895 Sea lily
 Cyathocrinida - Cyathocrinitidae
Cyathocrinites sp. Miller 1821 Sea lily
Gissocrinus sp. Angelin 1878 Sea lily
 Monobathrida - Marsupiocrinidae
Marsupiocrinus sp. Morris 1843 Sea lily
 Monobathrida - Eucalyptocrinitidae
Eucalyptocrinites sp. Goldfuss 1831 Sea lily
 Monobathrida -
Calliocrinus sp. Orbigny 1850 Sea lily
 Monobathrida - Patelliocrinidae
Patelliocrinus spp. Angelin 1878 Sea lily
 Diplobathrida -
 Diplobathrida - Dimerocrinitidae
Dimerocrinites sp. Phillips 1839 Sea lily
 Diplobathrida -
 Sphaeronitida - Holocystitidae
"Holocystites alternatus" = Holocystites (Holocystites) alternatus
"Holocystites alternatus" = Holocystites (Holocystites) alternatus Hall 1861
 Streptosclerophorida - Hindiidae
Hindia sp. Duncan 1879 demosponge
 Lithistida - Astylospongiidae
Astylospongia sp. Roemer 1860 demosponge
 Octactinellida - Astraeospongiidae
Astraeospongium sp. Roemer 1860
 Heliolitida - Plasmoporidae
Plasmopora sp. Milne-Edwards and Haime 1849 tabulate coral