Songshan 3 (Locality 80008), Tianzhu, Gansu Province (Miocene of China)

Where: Gansu, China (37.0° N, 103.3° E: paleocoordinates 36.9° N, 102.0° E)

• coordinate stated in text

When: Turolian (8.7 - 5.3 Ma)

• Late Miocene, MN12-13, Baodean. At the time the paper was written it was regarded as Pliocene. Extremely thick exposures approx. 200m.


• red clays, the majority of specimens are black.

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: Some specimens were bought from a Songshan drugstore.

Primary reference: S. Zheng. 1982. Some Pliocene mammalian fossils from Songshan 2 and 3 (Tianzhu, Gansu) and the Songshan Fauna. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 20(3):216-227 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 42676: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 04.08.2004

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• fauna indicates a relatively dry environment with dense forest to grasslands.
Paleotragus microdon
1 maxilla with P4-M2, 1 upper M3.
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Castoridae indet. Gray 1821 beaver
1 distal incisor fragment.
 Rodentia - Siphneidae
Prosiphneus sinensis rodent
2 lower M1, 1 lower M2, 1 upper M1.
Prosiphneus licenti Teilhard de Jardin 1926 rodent
Prosiphneus licenti tianzhuensis.
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Ochotonoides lagrelii pika
Ochotonoides lagrelii minor.
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Chilotherium (Chilotherium) anderssoni Ringström 1924 rhinoceros
"Chilotherium (Acerorhinus) tianzhuense n. sp." = Shansirhinus ringstromi Kretzoi 1942 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Hipparion "sp. 1" de Christol 1832 hipparionine horse
all upper maxillae fragments, 1 P4-M3, 1 M2-M3, 1 P4-M1.
Hipparion "sp. 2" de Christol 1832 hipparionine horse
all upper teeth: 2 P3, 1 P4, 1 M1.
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Indarctos atticus Weithofer 1888 bear
Indarctos atticus lagrelii. 1 upper M2, 3 lower teeth: M1, M2, M3. Possibly all 1 individual.
 Carnivora -
Adcrocuta eximia Roth and Wagner 1854 carnivoran
Adcrocuta eximia variabilis
 Carnivora - Felidae
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Ictitherium hipparionum hyaena
Ictitherium hipparionum hyaenoides
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Sinotragus sp. Bohlin 1935 antelope
Antilope sp. Pallas 1766 antelope
1 basal section of horncore.
Gazella sp. Blaineville 1816 gazelle
Pachygazella cf. grangeri antelope
1 basal section of horncore.