Subfamily Pycnodonteinae Stenzel 1959 (oyster)

Bivalvia - Ostreida - Gryphaeidae

Alternative spelling: Pycnodontinae

Parent taxon: Gryphaeidae according to J. G. Carter et al. 2011

See also Beu 2006, Beu et al. 1990, Freneix et al. 1988, Gliozzi and Malatesta 1983, Marquet 2002, Maxwell 1992, Moore 1987, Perrilliat 1994, Squires and Demetrion 1990, Stilwell 1998, Vokes 1980 and Ward 1992

Sister taxa: Argutostrea, Circunula, Exogyrinae, Gryphaeinae, Gryphaeostreinae, Ilymatogyra, Rhynchostreon

Subtaxa: Gigantostrea Hyotissa Hyotissini Labrostrea Neopycnodonta Neopycnodonte Neopycnodonteini Pycnodonte Pycnodonteini Texigryphaea

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Type: Pycnodonta

Ecology: stationary epifaunal suspension feeder

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Angola (1 collection), Djibouti (2), Ecuador (1), Eritrea (1), France (1), French Polynesia (1), Greece (1), Iran (1), Italy (1), Japan (3), Kenya (6), Mexico (3), Panama (1), Portugal (3), South Africa (1), Spain (4), Sudan (1), Tanzania (1), United States (6: Florida, South Carolina)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of Egypt (1), Malaysia (2), United States (1: Florida)

• Pliocene of Algeria (3), Belgium (1), Colombia (1), the Dominican Republic (1), Egypt (2), Greece (5), India (1), Italy (2), Japan (2), Mexico (3), Panama (7), Spain (1), United States (16: California, Florida, South Carolina)

• Miocene of Algeria (7), Australia (1), Austria (10), Belgium (1), Brazil (3), Bulgaria (3), Colombia (5), Cuba (3), Cyprus (5), the Czech Republic (1), the Dominican Republic (1), Egypt (2), Fiji (1), France (1), Germany (1), Greece (4), Grenada (3), Haiti (10), India (3), Indonesia (2), Iran (3), Iraq (1), Italy (10), Japan (1), Madagascar (1), Mexico (3), Moldova (2), Morocco (3), New Zealand (6), Pakistan (5), Panama (46), Poland (7), Slovakia (2), Somalia (8), South Africa (1), Spain (3), Sri Lanka (2), Trinidad and Tobago (1), United States (44: California, Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Virginia), Venezuela (1)

• Oligocene to Miocene of United States (2: Florida, Virginia)

• Oligocene of Antigua and Barbuda (1), Austria (1), Bulgaria (9), Colombia (1), Costa Rica (2), Denmark (3), France (1), Germany (1), Hungary (1), Israel (1), New Zealand (2), Puerto Rico (5), Turkey (2), United States (10: California, Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina)

• Eocene of Bulgaria (8), France (3), Germany (1), Italy (3), Japan (5), Mexico (11), Myanmar (1), the Netherlands (2), the Netherlands Antilles (2), New Zealand (23), Panama (1), Romania (3), Spain (2), Turkey (2), the United Kingdom (8), United States (93: Alabama, California, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas)

• Paleocene of Argentina (64), Austria (4), Belgium (6), Bulgaria (4), China (2), Denmark (3), Egypt (1), France (1), Germany (1), Libya (1), Nigeria (1), Poland (2), Trinidad and Tobago (1), United States (10: Alabama, Montana, New Jersey, Texas, Virginia)

• Cretaceous to Paleogene of United States (1: New Jersey)

• Cretaceous of Afghanistan (18), Algeria (8), Antarctica (8), Argentina (49), Australia (1), Austria (2), Belgium (2), Brazil (15), Bulgaria (1), Chile (1), China (1), Colombia (4), the Congo-Brazzaville (2), the Czech Republic (8), Denmark (3), Ecuador (2), Egypt (32), France (12), Germany (25), Hungary (1), India (3), Iran (1), Israel (2), Italy (2), Japan (6), Jordan (3), Kazakhstan (7), Libya (3), Madagascar (1), Mexico (2), Morocco (5), Mozambique (3), the Netherlands (1), New Zealand (3), Niger (1), Nigeria (3), Oman (7), Pakistan (1), Peru (3), Poland (13), the Russian Federation (1), Serbia and Montenegro (1), Spain (3), Sweden (2), Switzerland (1), Tunisia (5), Turkey (4), Turkmenistan (1), Ukraine (1), the United Arab Emirates (1), the United Kingdom (15), United States (331: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Mississippi, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah)

Total: 1248 collections including 1395 occurrences

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