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Paracrinoidea

Paracrinoidea

Taxonomy
Paracrinoidea was named by Regnell (1945). It is not extant. It was considered monophyletic by Limbeck et al. (2024).

It was assigned to Crinozoa by Beaver et al. (1967); to Paracrinozoa by Parsley (1981); to Echinodermata by Sepkoski (2002); and to Blastozoa by Smith (1984) and Limbeck et al. (2024).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1945Paracrinoidea Regnell
1967Paracrinoidea Beaver et al. p. S1
1981Paracrinoidea Parsley
1984Paracrinoidea Smith
2002Paracrinoidea Sepkoski
2024Paracrinoidea Limbeck et al. p. 4,10

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Deuterostomia
Ambulacraria
RankNameAuthor
phylumEchinodermata
subphylumBlastozoa
classParacrinoideaRegnell 1945
classParacrinoideaRegnell 1945

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Cl. †Paracrinoidea Regnell 1945
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Or. †Comarocystitida Parsley and Mintz 1975
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Fm. †Achradocystitidae Stukalina and Hintz 1989
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G. †Achradocystites Volborth 1870
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Achradocystites schmidti Hecker 1958
Fm. †Amygdalocystitidae Jaekel 1900
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G. †Amygdalocystites Billings 1854
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Amygdalocystites florealis Billings 1854
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Invalid names: Amygdalocystites laevis Billings 1883 [synonym]
Amygdalocystites radiatus Billings 1854
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Invalid names: Amygdalocystites invaginata Bassler 1950 [synonym]
Invalid names: Billingsocystis Bassler 1950 [synonym]
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Oklahomacystis spissus Frest et al. 1980
Oklahomacystis trigonis Guensburg 1984
Fm. †Comarocystitidae Bather 1899
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G. †Comarocystites Billings 1854
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Comarocystites punctatus Billings 1854
Comarocystites tribrachius Parsley and Mintz 1975
G. †Implicaticystis Frest and Strimple 1982
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Implicaticystis shumardi Meek and Worthen 1865
Implicaticystis symmetricus Frest and Strimple 1982
G. †Sinclairocystis Bassler 1950
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Sinclairocystis praedicta Bassler 1950
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Invalid names: Sinclairocystis angulatus Strimple 1952 [synonym], Sinclairocystis sulphurensis Strimple 1952 [synonym]
Fm. †Heckeritidae Rozhnov 1987
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G. †Heckerites Rozhnov 1987
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Heckerites multistellatus Rozhnov 2012
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Fm. †Bistomiacystitidae Sprinkle and Parsley 1982
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Bistomiacystis globosa Sprinkle and Parsley 1982
Bistomiacystis schrantzi Sumrall and Deline 2009
Fm. †Malocystitidae Bather 1899
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G. †Malocystites Billings 1858
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Malocystites murchisoni Billings 1858
G. †Wellerocystis Foerste 1920
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Fm. †Platycystitidae Parsley and Mintz 1975
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G. †Canadocystis Jaekel 1900
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Canadocystis barrandei Billings 1858
Canadocystis emmonsi Hudson 1905
Canadocystis tennesseensis Parsley and Mintz 1975
Invalid names: Sigmacystis Hudson 1911 [synonym]
Subfm. †Platycystitinae Parsley and Mintz 1975
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G. †Globulocystites Frest et al. 1979
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Globulocystites rotundatus Frest et al. 1979
G. †Platycystites Miller 1889
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Platycystites cristatus Bassler 1943
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Invalid names: Platycystites bromidensis Bassler 1943 [synonym], Platycystites fimbriatus Bassler 1943 [synonym]
Platycystites faberi Miller 1889
Platycystites levatus Bassler 1943
Platycystites ovalis Frest et al. 1979
Fm. †Springerocystidae Bassler 1950
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G. †Columbocystis Bassler 1950
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Columbocystis ovata Parsley 1975
Columbocystis typica Bassler 1950
G. †Foerstecystis Bassler 1950
G. †Springerocystis Bassler 1950
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Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available