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Helianthaster

Asteroidea - Hemizonida - Helianthasteridae

Taxonomy
Helianthaster was named by Roemer (1864) [Sepkoski's age data: D Emsi-l D u]. Its type is Helianthaster rhenanus. It is the type genus of Helianthasterinae, Helianthasteridae. It was considered monophyletic by Blake (2009).

It was assigned to Lepidasteridae by Schuchert (1915); to Taeniactininae by Spencer (1927) and Lehmann (1957); to Helianthasterinae by Owen (1965); to Hemizonida by Sepkoski (2002); and to Helianthasteridae by Spencer and Wright (1966) and Blake (2009).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1864Helianthaster Roemer p. 147 figs. pl. 28
1915Helianthaster Schuchert p. 159
1927Helianthaster Spencer pp. 386-388
1957Helianthaster Lehmann pp. 89-91
1965Helianthaster Owen p. 561
1966Helianthaster Spencer and Wright p. U65
2002Helianthaster Sepkoski, Jr.
2009Helianthaster Blake p. 304

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
Ambulacraria
phylumEchinodermata
RankNameAuthor
subphylumAsterozoa
classAsteroidea
orderHemizonida
familyHelianthasteridae
genusHelianthaster

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
D. B. Blake 2009Sixteen-armed helianthasterid. Primary ossicles of dorsal skeleton delicate, appearing differentially developed among individuals; these can be locally reduced or absent. Carinals not developed. Adambulacrals bearing single spine. Circumoral about the same length as next ambulacral. Only small pedicellariae present, valves two. Four or more long, robust spines at proximal tip of MAO.