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Protohippus tantalus

Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae

Taxonomy
Protohippus tantalus was named by Merriam (1913). Its type specimen is UCMP 19434 and 21221, a set of teeth (Two large upper cheek teeth), and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Ricardo, which is in a Clarendonian terrestrial horizon in the Dove Spring Formation of California.

It was recombined as Pliohippus (Pliohippus) tantalus by Stirton (1940); it was synonymized subjectively with Pliohippus fairbanksi by MacFadden (1998); it was considered a nomen dubium by Macdonald (1992); it was recombined as Pliohippus tantalus by Merriam (1913), Merriam (1915), Osborn (1918), Kelly (1995) and Kelly (1998).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1913Pliohippus tantalus Merriam
1913Protohippus tantalus Merriam p. 440 fig. 4
1915Pliohippus fairbanksi Merriam
1915Pliohippus tantalus Merriam p. 54
1915Pliohippus fairbanksi Merriam p. 55 figs. 8a - 8c
1918Pliohippus tantalus Osborn p. 162 figs. Text Fig. ,130
1918Pliohippus fairbanksi Osborn p. 164 figs. Text Fig. 131
1940Pliohippus (Pliohippus) tantalus Stirton p. 192
1995Pliohippus tantalus Kelly p. 14
1998Pliohippus tantalus Kelly
1998Pliohippus fairbanksi MacFadden p. 550

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
RankNameAuthor
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
orderPerissodactyla()
suborderLophodontomorpha
infraorderEuperissodactyla
Hippomorpha
superfamilyEquoidea
familyEquidae
subfamilyEquinaeSteinmann and Döderlein 1890
tribeEquini
genusProtohippus()
speciestantalus

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
H. F. Osborn 1918(Merriam, 1913, p. 440) (1) Protocone and protoconule united; (2) crown curved; (3) fossettes large, wide, with complicated enamel on both borders of the metaloph, and with single projections into pre- and post-fossettes; (4) a single crochet fold in the prefossette; (5) a pli caballin; (6) outer styles heavy and narrow, noticeably above the base.