Fuente Nueva 3 (Pleistocene of Spain)

Also known as Fuentenueva 3 FN-3

Where: Granada, Spain (37.7° N, 2.5° W: paleocoordinates 37.8° N, 2.6° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Upper Member (Baza Formation), Early/Lower Pleistocene (2.6 - 0.8 Ma)

• Lower Pleistocene, in the Matuyama Chron (1.77-0.78Ma), possibly predates the Jaramillo event (1.07-0.99Ma), Upper Biharian. Out of a total of 15 levels, 4 archaeological and palaeontological levels are recognised, in a variety of depositional environments, but only one faunal list is given.

Environment/lithology: lacustrine

• 'the locality under study is found in carbonatic sediments of the section. In this area it was possible to conduct a precise geological study of the sedimentary cycle of the paleo-lake of Orce to a depth of some 5m. From one upper limestone level to another lower limestone and marl level, six geological units have been identified: I) assemblage of limestones and marls; II) carbonated clays; III) clays and silts; IV) carbonated clays and marls; V) green clays oxidised at their summit; VI) marly limestones. Archaeological level 1 is in geological unit II, archaeological level 2 in geological unit V and archaeological level 3 in geological unit VI.

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: bulk,

• Found on May 5th 1991, Excavated in April 1994 and August 1995.

Primary reference: B. Martinez-Navarro, A. Turq, A. Agusti Ballester and O. Oms. 1997. Fuente Nueva-3 (Orce, Granada, Spain) and the first human occupation of Europe. Journal of Human Evolution 33:611-620 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: archaeological analysis

PaleoDB collection 34943: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 21.10.2003, edited by Mark Uhen

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• degree of evolution of Allophaiomys burgondiae and A. chalinei suggest that FN3 is older than the Gran Dolina, Atapuerca.
 Rodentia - Muridae
Castillomys crusafonti1 Michaux 1969 mouse
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
 Rodentia - Hystricidae
Hystrix major1 porcupine
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Stephanorhinus etruscus1 Falconer 1868 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus etruscus2 Cuvier 1823 bear
 Carnivora - Felidae
Megantereon whitei1 Broom 1937 cat
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
Mammuthus meridionalis1 Nesti 1825 mammoth
 Artiodactyla - Hippopotamidae
Hippopotamus antiquus1 Desmarest 1822 hippo
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Bovini indet.1 Gray 1821 antelope
cf. Bos sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 ox
Bovini cf. Bos sp.
Hemitragus sp.1 Hodgson 1841 antelope
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae
Cervus sp.1, "Megaloceros (Megaceroides) solilhacus" = Megaceroides1
Cervus sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 deer
"Megaloceros (Megaceroides) solilhacus" = Megaceroides1 deer