Goldra (Pleistocene of Portugal)

Where: Algarve, Portugal (37.1° N, 8.0° W: paleocoordinates 37.1° N, 8.0° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Late/Upper Pleistocene (0.1 - 0.0 Ma)

• Late Pleistocene, not older than Riss-Wurm, possibly first interstadial of the Wurm. Tools are Middle and Upper Paleolithic (Epipaleolithic) - but rather 'uncharacteristic' artefacts.

Environment/lithology: karst

• 'infilling of a karst depression.'
• 'bone breccia'

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Preservation: anthropogenic

Collection methods: 8 stone tools, made of quartzite, quartz, flint and graywacke.

Primary reference: M. T. Antunes, G. Manuppella, P. Mein and G. Zbyszewski. 1986. Goldra: premier gisement karstique en Algarve, faune et industries. Ciencias da Terra (UNL) 8:31-42 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: archaeological analysis

PaleoDB collection 40984: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 05.07.2004

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Climate indicated is dry, similar to current climate. All species in faunal list are still extant in this area.
Gastropoda indet. Cuvier 1797 snail
a small number
 Testudines -
"Chelonia indet." = Testudines
"Chelonia indet." = Testudines Batsch 1788 turtle
1 piece of carapace
 Rodentia - Muridae
Apodemus sylvaticus Linnaeus 1758 wood mouse
The most numerous species with 52 teeth.
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Microtus brecciensis, "Pitymys duodecimcostatus" = Microtus
Microtus brecciensis Forsyth Major 1905 vole
Around 40 teeth.
"Pitymys duodecimcostatus" = Microtus vole
3 teeth, small size.
 Rodentia - Gliridae
Eliomys quercinus Linnaeus 1766 garden doormouse
Eliomys quercinus lusitanicus. 8 teeth
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus 1758 European rabbit
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Talpa europaea Linnaeus 1758 European mole
1 upper M3, 1 lower P4.
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus sp. Linnaeus 1758 horse
1 lower P2
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Sorex araneus Linnaeus 1758 common shrew
1 mandible with M2-M3, 1 mandible with incisor root and P4-M1.
Crocidura russula Herrmann 1780 Greater white-toothed shrew
1 complete maxilla, 11 isolated teeth and some fragments.
 Artiodactyla - Suidae
Sus cf. scrofa Linnaeus 1758 wild boar
burnt molars.
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae
Cervus elephas deer
teeth, more or less complete, plus fragments.