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Pleurodira (sideneck turtle)

Reptilia - Testudines

Taxonomy
Pleurodira was named by Cope (1865) [also said to be 1864]. It is extant. It was considered monophyletic by Joyce (2007) and Pérez-García (2017).

It was reranked as the unranked clade Pleurodira by Lydekker (1889), Huene (1954), Cadena et al. (2012) and Cadena and Joyce (2015); it was reranked as the infraorder Pleurodira by Andrews (1906), Gaffney (1975) and Gaffney et al. (2006); it was reranked as the superfamily Pleurodira by Hay (1908).

It was assigned to Testudinata by Lydekker (1889); to Thecophora by Andrews (1906) and Hay (1908); to Thecophora by Roxo (1937); to Testudinata by Cope (1871), Cope (1875), Zittel (1890), Baur (1893), Osborn (1904), Kuhn (1946), Zangerl (1948), Huene (1954) and Haas (1978); to Chelonia by Woodward (1898), Swinton (1934), Olson (1947), Delair (1958), Antunes (1964), Miller (1967), Thurmond and Jones (1981) and Carroll (1988); to Casichelydia by Gaffney (1975) and Gaffney et al. (2006); to Chelonia by Cadena et al. (2012); to Chelonii by Lapparent de Broin and Molnar (2001), de la Fuente and Iturralde-Vinent (2001), de la Fuente and Bona (2002), Pérez-García et al. (2013), Pérez-García et al. (2013) and Pérez-García and Lapparent de Broin (2013); to Testudines by Joyce (2007) and Puntener et al. (2014); to Panpleurodira by Danilov and Parham (2008) and Cadena and Joyce (2015); and to Testudines by Wood (1976), Gaffney and Wood (2002), Joyce et al. (2004), Hutchison et al. (2004), Vremir (2013), Weems and Knight (2013), van Dijk et al. (2014), Pérez-García and Chapman (2017), Pérez-García (2017) and Pérez-García and Ortega (2018).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1865Pleurodira Cope
1871Pleurodira Cope p. 236
1875Pleurodira Cope p. 17
1889Pleurodira Lydekker p. 158
1890Pleurodira Zittel p. 449
1893Pleurodira Baur p. 672
1898Pleurodira Woodward p. 141
1904Pleurodira Osborn p. 100
1906Pleurodira Andrews p. 289
1908Pleurodira Hay p. 102
1934Pleurodira Swinton p. 75
1937Pleurodira Roxo p. 43
1946Pleurodira Kuhn p. 58
1947Pleurodira Olson pp. 44, 45
1948Pleurodira Zangerl p. 25
1954Pleurodira Huene p. 24
1958Pleurodira Delair p. 55
1964Pleurodira Antunes p. 135
1967Pleurodira Miller p. 225
1975Pleurodira Gaffney p. 425
1976Pleurodira Wood p. 2
1978Pleurodira Haas
1981Pleurodira Thurmond and Jones p. 120
1988Pleurodira Carroll
2001Pleurodira Lapparent de Broin and Molnar
2001Pleurodira de la Fuente and Iturralde-Vinent
2002Pleurodira Gaffney and Wood p. 2
2002Pleurodira de la Fuente and Bona p. 78
2004Pleurodira Hutchison et al. p. 39
2004Pleurodira Joyce et al.
2006Pleurodira Gaffney et al. p. 26
2007Pleurodira Joyce
2008Pleurodira Danilov and Parham
2012Pleurodira Cadena et al. p. 549
2013Pleurodira Pérez-García and Lapparent de Broin
2013Pleurodira Pérez-García et al.
2013Pleurodira Pérez-García et al.
2013Pleurodira Vremir
2013Pleurodira Weems and Knight p. 290
2014Pleurodira Puntener et al.
2014Pleurodira van Dijk et al.
2015Pleurodira Cadena and Joyce
2017Pleurodira Pérez-García p. 2
2017Pleurodira Pérez-García and Chapman p. 2
2018Pleurodira Pérez-García and Ortega

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
RankNameAuthor
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
Testudinata(Oppel 1811)
orderTestudinesBatsch 1788
suborderPleurodira
suborderPleurodira

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
O. P. Hay 1908Thecophorous turtles having a carapace composed of costals and peripheral bones and usually a series of neurals and a plastron in which the epiplastra are in contact with the hyoplastra. Mesoplastra present or absent. Intergular scutes developt, the inframarginals wanting. Temporal roof of the skull varying from nearly complete to nearly obsolete. Pterygoids not extending backward between the quadrates and the basisphenoid; broad, with the outer border uprolled. Neck bending sideways; not capable of being withdrawn between the scapulae. Ilia suturally joined to the eighth costals; the pubes and the ischia, to the xiphiplastra.
E. S. Gaffney 1975Casichelydians with trochlear sur- face for cartilago transiliens developed on lateral process of pterygoid; processus trochlearis pterygoidei never on otic chamber; joint surface of trochlea consisting of infolded oral mucosa rather than true synovial capsule; quadrate send- ing process medially to braincase elements, ptery- goid rarely extending posteriorly but in any case not preventing quadrate contact with braincase; hyomandibular' nerve contained in own canal separate from canalis cavernosus; mandibular artery failing to exit from foramen nervi tri- gemini but branching off stapedial artery after latter leaves otic region of skull to enter temporal fossa; epipterygoid not ossifying, epipterygoid cartilage apparently absent or greatly reduced in adult, fossa cartilaginis epipterygoidei therefore greatly reduced or absent; articular usually hemi- spherical; foramen palatinum posterius behind
orbit; descending process of prefrontal reduced, not meeting vomer ventromedially.
Head withdrawn by horizontal flexure of neck in advanced forms with attendant development of narrowly spaced zygapophyses, laterally developed transverse processes, and formed central articu- lations; pelvis suturally united to carapace and plastron; cervical (nuchal) scute, intergular scute and mesoplastra present or absent.