Basic info Taxonomic history Classification Relationships
Morphology Ecology and taphonomy External Literature Search Age range and collections

Dugongidae (dugong)

Mammalia - Dugongidae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1821Dugongidae Gray p. 309
1824Hippopotamus dubius Cuvier
1825Halicoridae Gray p. 340
1838Manatus renggeri Bronn p. 840
1838Halytherium Kaup p. 319
1838Halytherium dubium Kaup p. 319 figs. Plate II
1838Pugmeodon schinzii Kaup p. 319
1838Halitherium Kaup p. 536
1844Manatus dubius Blainville
1844Manatus schinzii Blainville
1844Manatus guettardi Blainville pp. 122-124
1846Metaxytherium guettardi Laurillard p. 172
1846Halianassa collinii Von Meyer p. 328
1847Halitherium guettardi Gervais p. 221
1847Pygmaeodon schinzii Giebel p. 230
1849Trachytherium Gervais p. 644
1849Trachytherium raulinii Gervais p. 644
1849Trachytherium Gervais p. 645
1852Halitherium dubium Kaup p. 145
1853Halitherium Bronn p. 777
1853Halitherium schinzi Bronn p. 780
1853Trachytherium Bronn p. 789
1853Trachytherium raulini Bronn p. 789
1853Halitherium Pictet p. 373
1853Trachytherium Pictet p. 374
1858Halitherium kaupi Krauss p. 528
1868Halicorida Brandt p. 344
1872Halicoroidea Gill p. 91
1872Halicoridae Gill p. 92
1872Halicoroidea Gill p. 92
1872Halitherium Gill p. 92
1872Trachytherium Gill p. 92
1883Halicoridae Flower p. 184
1884Halitherium chouqueti Gaudry p. 373 figs. Plate XVII
1885Halitherium dubium Woodward p. 425
1885Halitherium schinzi Woodward p. 425
1885Trachytherium Woodward p. 425
1885Trachytherium raulini Woodward p. 425
1886Manatherium delheidi Hartlaub p. 378
1887Halitherium Deperet p. 273
1887Halitherium Lydekker p. 5
1887Halitherium schinzi Lydekker p. 7
1889Halicoridae Cope p. 876
1890Halicoridae Cope p. 698
1890Halitherium Cope p. 698
1891Halicoridae Flower and Lydekker p. 89
1891Halitherium Newton p. 48
1895Halitherium raulinii Deperet p. 410
1895Halicoridae Flores p. 15
1898Manatherium delheidi Trouessart p. 999
1898Halicoridae Trouessart p. 1003
1898Halitherium Trouessart p. 1004
1898Halitherium schinzi Trouessart p. 1004
1903Dugongidae Rhoads p. 246
1904Halitherium schinzi Abel p. 215
1904Manatherium delheidi Trouessart p. 748
1904Halicoridae Trouessart p. 749
1904Halitherium Trouessart p. 749
1904Halitherium schinzi Trouessart p. 749
1904Halitherium chouqueti Trouessart p. 750
1906Halicoridae Andrews p. 197
1911Halicoridae Jaekel p. 245
1912Halicoridae Turner p. 145
1916Halitherium antillense Matthew p. 25
1919Halicoridae Abel p. 833
1925Halitherium uytterhoeveni Abel p. 39
1925Halitherium Zittel p. 265
1925Halitherium schinzi Zittel p. 265
1928Halicoridae Weber p. 495
1930Halitherium Hay p. 656
1932Dugongidae Simpson p. 423
1932Halitherium Simpson p. 424
1932Halitherium alleni Simpson p. 445 figs. Plate II, Fig. 1
1934Protosiren dubia Sickenberg p. 190
1934Halitherium schinzi Sickenberg p. 271
1941Dugongidae Kretzoi p. 154
1941Halitherium Kretzoi p. 154
1952Dugongidae Sherman p. 98
1959Dugongidae Reinhart p. 63
1963Dugongidae Scheffer and Rice p. 4
1966Felsinotherium alleni Kellogg p. 91
1973Dugongidae Heal p. 89
1973Halitherium Heal p. 199
1974Metaxytherium alleni Fondi and Pacini p. 45
1976Dugongidae Reinhart p. 199
1976Halitherium Reinhart p. 236
1978Halitherium Domning
1978Dugongidae Husar p. 1
1980Dugongidae Kurten and Anderson p. 340
1982Halitherium schinzi Fischer and Krumbiegel
1985Dugongidae Barnes et al. p. 33
1985Dugongidae de Muizon and Domning p. 192
1986Dugongidae Takahashi et al. p. 300
1987Halianassa schinzii Domning p. 123
1987Halitherium schinzi lareolensis Pilleri p. 46
1987Halitherium schinzii lareolensis Pilleri p. 46 figs. Plate XXVII
1988Dugongidae Carroll
1988Halitherium Carroll
1988Dugongidae Domning p. 399
1988Dugongidae PIlleri p. 46
1989Dugongidae Pilleri et al. p. 17
1991Dugongidae Domning p. 398
1991Dugongidae Nowak
1991Dugongidae Toledo and Domning p. 122
1994Dugongidae Aranda-Manteca et al. p. 192
1994Dugongidae Domning p. 189
1994Halitherium Domning p. 189
1994Halitherium schinzii Domning p. 189
1994Dugongidae Furusawa and Kohno p. 27
1995Dugongidae Domning and Furusawa p. 506
1996Dugongidae Domning p. 382
1996Halitherium Domning p. 384
1996Halitherium alleni Domning p. 384
1996Halitherium antillense Domning p. 384
1996Halitherium schinzii Domning p. 384
1997Dugongidae Bajpai and Domning p. 219
1997Dugongidae Domning p. 398
1998Dugongidae Rice
1999Dugongidae Bergqvist et al. p. 31
2001Dugongidae Sach and Heizmann p. 42
2001Dugongidae Sagne p. 473
2001Halitherium Sagne p. 473
2001Halitherium schinzii Sagne p. 473
2001Halitherium taulannense Sagne p. 473 figs. Figure 1
2002Dugongidae Rice p. 232 figs. Table 1
2002Halitherium Sepkoski, Jr.
2006Halitherium Clementz et al. p. 360
2006Halitherium taulannense Clementz et al. p. 360
2006Dugongidae Pledge p. 295
2007Halitherium schinzi Voss p. 45
2008Dugongidae Domning
2008Halitherium Domning
2008Halitherium alleni Domning
2008Halitherium antillense Domning
2008Halitherium schinzii Domning
2008Dugongidae Domning and Aguilera p. 480
2008Dugongidae Voss p. 259
2008Halitherium Voss p. 259
2008Halitherium schinzii Voss p. 259
2009Dugongidae Rice p. 235 figs. Table 1
2009Dugongidae Samonds and Zalmout p. 1235
2009Dugongidae Thewissen and Bajpai p. 7
2010Dugongidae Bajpai et al. p. 42
2010Dugongidae Canto et al. p. 20
2011Dugongidae Bianucci et al. p. 574
2011Dugongidae Domning p. 1340
2011Dugongidae Voss
2011Halitherium Voss
2012Dugongidae Domning and Pervesler p. 136
2012Dugongidae Sorbi et al. p. 688
2012Dugongidae Velez-Juarbe et al. p. 587
2012Dugongidae Zalmout and Gingerich p. 37
2014Dugongidae Velez-Juarbe and Domning p. 951
2015Dugongidae Velez-Juarbe and Domning p. 2
2016Dugongidae Balaguer and Alba
2016Dugongidae Voss et al. p. 6
2017Dugongidae Berta p. 170
2017Dugongidae Voss and Hampe p. 341
2017Dugongidae Voss et al. p. 165
2018Dugongidae Domning p. 246
2018Halitherium Domning p. 857 figs. Fig. 1
2018Dugongidae Gol'din et al.
2019Dugongidae Samonds et al. p. 2
2019Dugongidae Velez-Juarbe and Wood

Is something missing? Join the Paleobiology Database and enter the data

phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

No diagnoses are available
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: marinef
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: aquaticf
Diet: herbivoref
Reproduction: viviparousf
Created: 2005-06-08 10:11:09
Modified: 2005-06-08 12:11:09
Source: f = family, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Nowak 1991, Domning 1978, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Lutetian to the top of the Holocene or 47.80000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 41.3 Ma

Collections (516 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Paleogene66.0 - 23.03Libya Halitherium sp. (76981)
Eocene56.0 - 33.9Hungary Sirenavus sp. (49958 49960)
Middle Eocene48.6 - 37.2Madagascar Eotheroides lambondrano (93587)
Middle Eocene48.6 - 37.2Italy (Verona) Halitherium veronense, Paraliosiren suessi, Halitherium angustifrons, Halitherium curvidens (48159)
Middle Eocene48.6 - 37.2Somalia Prototherium sp. (49940)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3India (Kutch) Eosiren sp., Eotheroides babiae, Eotheroides waghapadarensis (45590)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3Hungary Anisosiren pannonica (48072) Sirenavus hungaricus (49887)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3Spain (Boltana) Dugongidae indet. (189780)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3Togo Dugongidae indet. (32991)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3Spain Dugongidae indet. (94579 133618) Halitherium sp. (140180)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3Egypt Eosiren abeli, Eotheroides aegyptiacum, Manatus coulombi (58456)
Lutetian - Bartonian47.8 - 38.0France Eotheroides sp., Eotherium sp. (49935)
Lutetian - Bartonian47.8 - 38.0Spain Dugongidae indet. (94594) Halitherium sp. (49933) Metaxytherium cuvieri (140178)
Lutetian - Priabonian47.8 - 33.9France Eotheroides sp. (49936)
Bartonian41.3 - 38.0France (Gironde) Eotherium sp. (78246)
Bartonian41.3 - 38.0Spain Halitherium sp., Prototherium sp. (65272) Prototherium ausetanum (49689) Prototherium sp. (65260 65262 65263 65266 65267 65268 65271 65273) Prototherium sp., Prototherium montserratense (65259) Prototherium sp., Prototherium solei (61240)
Bartonian41.3 - 38.0Spain (Navarre) Dugongidae indet. 1 (80238)
Bartonian - Priabonian41.3 - 33.9Italy (Vicenza) Prototherium sp. (184969)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9Hungary Halitherium sp., Sirenavus sp., Paralitherium tarkanyense (49889)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9USA (Georgia) Halitherium canhami (140087)