Casamayoran of Patagonia (Eocene to of Argentina)

Where: Chubut, Argentina (45.7° S, 68.7° W: paleocoordinates 48.1° S, 59.1° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

• basin-level geographic resolution

When: Casamayoran mammal zone, Middle Eocene to Middle Eocene (48.6 - 33.9 Ma)

• Vacan and Barrancan sub-ages of the Casamayoran SALMA, Middle to Late Eocene (Woodburne et al. 2014).

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; lithology not reported

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collected by Carlos Ameghino in c. 1900

Primary reference: F. Ameghino. 1897. Mammiféres crétacés de l’Argentine (Deuxième contribution à la connaissance de la fauna mammalogique de couches à Pyrotherium) [Cretaceous mammals of Argentina (second contribution to the knowledge of the mammalian fauna of the Pyrotherium Beds)]. Boletin Instituto Geografico Argentino 18(4–9):406-521 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Carrano]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 176285: authorized by Jelle Zijlstra, entered by Jelle Zijlstra on 06.02.2016

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Mammalia
 Notoungulata -
Lophiodonticulus patagonicus n. gen. n. sp.2 Ameghino 1902 notoungulate
MACN 10637, dentary m1-2. Simpson (1967b, ref. 57943) listed the type locality as Río Chico Oeste, but Simpson (1967a, ref. 10312) records it as just 'Casamayoran ("Partie supérieure")'
Epitypotherium cancellatum n. gen. n. sp.2 Ameghino 1904 notoungulate
MACN 10699, astragalus
Notopithecus summus n. sp. Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
Type not relocated by Simpson (1967), a humerus
 Notoungulata - Archaeopithecidae
"Acropithecus tersus n. sp." = Archaeopithecus rogeri2
"Acropithecus tersus n. sp." = Archaeopithecus rogeri2 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN 10850, three upper teeth including the lectotype M?3
 Notoungulata - Isotemnidae
"Thomashuxleya rostrata n. gen. n. sp." = Thomashuxleya rostrata2, "Thomashuxleya robusta n. sp." = Thomashuxleya rostrata2, "Thomashuxleya externa" = Thomashuxleya externa2, "Thomashuxleya artuata n. sp." = Thomashuxleya externa2, Acoelohyrax coronatus n. gen. n. sp.2, "Isotemnus primitivus n. gen. n. sp." = Isotemnus primitivus, "Eochalicotherium cretaceum n. sp." = Isotemnus primitivus2, "Isotemnus cuspidatus n. sp." = Isotemnus latidens2, Prostylops typus n. gen. n. sp., Thomashuxleya principialis n. sp.2, "Pleurostylodon complanatus n. sp." = Pleurostylodon complanatus2, "Pleurostylodon irregularis n. sp." = Pleurostylodon complanatus2, "Pleurostylodon neglectus n. sp." = Pleurostylodon complanatus2, Pleurostylodon similis n. sp.2, Pleurostylodon notabilis n. sp.2, Pleurostylodon bifidus n. sp.2, "Pleurostylodon modicus n. gen. n. sp." = Pleurostylodon modicus, "Pleurostylodon plexus n. sp." = Pleurostylodon modicus2, "Pleurostylodon limpidus n. sp." = Pleurostylodon modicus2, "Parastylops coelodus n. gen. n. sp." = Pleurostylodon modicus, "Pleurostylodon sinuosus n. sp." = Pleurostylodon modicus2
"Thomashuxleya rostrata n. gen. n. sp." = Thomashuxleya rostrata2 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10370, mandible i2-p4 (lectotype) and maxilla I1-P4
"Thomashuxleya robusta n. sp." = Thomashuxleya rostrata2 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
Type not relocated by Simpson (1967), lower teeth
"Thomashuxleya externa" = Thomashuxleya externa2 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10544, m1-3; MACN 10639; right p4-m2 and left m2-3; MACN 10543, teeth tooth fragments
"Thomashuxleya artuata n. sp." = Thomashuxleya externa2 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10540, mandible with alveoli of c-p2, crowns of p3-m3
Acoelohyrax coronatus n. gen. n. sp.2 Ameghino 1902 notoungulate
MACN 10781, left P4 (type or lectotype)
"Isotemnus primitivus n. gen. n. sp." = Isotemnus primitivus Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN 10556, maxilla P2-M3, type
"Eochalicotherium cretaceum n. sp." = Isotemnus primitivus2 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
Type not relocated by Simpson (1967)
"Isotemnus cuspidatus n. sp." = Isotemnus latidens2 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
Type not relocated by Simpson (1967)
Prostylops typus n. gen. n. sp. Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
Type not relocated by Simpson (1967), a broken right lower molar. Referred material from Gran Barranca is Isotemnus latidens.
Thomashuxleya principialis n. sp.2 Ameghino 1902 notoungulate
MACN 10937, dentary m2-3
"Pleurostylodon complanatus n. sp." = Pleurostylodon complanatus2 Ameghino 1902 notoungulate
MACN 10564, three upper molars, including the type
"Pleurostylodon irregularis n. sp." = Pleurostylodon complanatus2 Ameghino 1902 notoungulate
Type apparently the same specimen as _P. complanatus_. MACN 10575, isolated M3, was also referred.
"Pleurostylodon neglectus n. sp." = Pleurostylodon complanatus2 Ameghino 1902 notoungulate
MACN 10568, M3
Pleurostylodon similis n. sp.2 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10549, maxilla P4-M3
Pleurostylodon notabilis n. sp.2 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
No material relocated by Simpson (1967), but said to be from the Casamayoran.
Pleurostylodon bifidus n. sp.2 Ameghino 1904 notoungulate
No material relocated by Simpson (1967), but said to be based on a partial dentary with teeth
"Pleurostylodon modicus n. gen. n. sp." = Pleurostylodon modicus Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN 10566, maxilla M1-3, type
"Pleurostylodon plexus n. sp." = Pleurostylodon modicus2 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN 10570, right M1, left M1 (lectotype), and left M2
"Pleurostylodon limpidus n. sp." = Pleurostylodon modicus2 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN 10573, M3
"Parastylops coelodus n. gen. n. sp." = Pleurostylodon modicus Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN 10618, two upper and two lower molars, including left M3, lectotype
"Pleurostylodon sinuosus n. sp." = Pleurostylodon modicus2 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN 10571, broken M1
 Notoungulata - Notostylopidae
Edvardotrouessartia sola n. gen. n. sp.1, Notostylops brachycephalus n. sp.1, Entelostylops cestillus n. sp.1, "Dimerostephanos chicoensis n. sp." = Notostylops murinus1, "Pliostylops magnificus n. gen. n. sp." = Notostylops murinus1, "Notostylops irregularis n. sp." = Notostylops murinus1, "Anastylops vallatus n. gen. n. sp." = Notostylops murinus, "Notostylops complexus n. sp." = Notostylops murinus1, "Notostylops escaridus n. sp." = Notostylops murinus1
Edvardotrouessartia sola n. gen. n. sp.1 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
Type not relocated. Right dentary with p2-m3.
Notostylops brachycephalus n. sp.1 Ameghino 1904 notoungulate
MACN 10499, nearly perfect skull
Entelostylops cestillus n. sp.1 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
Type not relocated. M1-3.
"Dimerostephanos chicoensis n. sp." = Notostylops murinus1 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN 10647, right p3-4 (lectotype), m2, p1-2, p2, p3
"Pliostylops magnificus n. gen. n. sp." = Notostylops murinus1 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN 10486, left p4-m3
"Notostylops irregularis n. sp." = Notostylops murinus1 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN 10523, mandible with right i1-2, p2-m1, left i2 and p2-3
"Anastylops vallatus n. gen. n. sp." = Notostylops murinus Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN 10469, two upper premolars and an incisor
"Notostylops complexus n. sp." = Notostylops murinus1 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
Type not relocated. Referred: MACN 10532, left M1-3, isolated left M2 and M3
"Notostylops escaridus n. sp." = Notostylops murinus1 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN 10510, skull fragments with upper cheek teeth (lectotype); MACN 10509, right dentary p2-m2
 Notoungulata - Oldfieldthomasiidae
"Infrapithecus expansus n. sp." = Maxschlosseria expansa2, "Pleurostylodon minimus n. sp." = Maxschlosseria minima2, "Acoelodus microdon n. sp." = Paginula parca2
"Infrapithecus expansus n. sp." = Maxschlosseria expansa2 Ameghino 1902 notoungulate
MACN 10856, three unassociated lower jaws
"Pleurostylodon minimus n. sp." = Maxschlosseria minima2 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN 10572, left M2 (lectotype) and right M3
"Acoelodus microdon n. sp." = Paginula parca2 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10698, dentary p2-4
 Notoungulata - Notopithecidae
"Transpithecus obtentus" = Transpithecus obtentus3, "Patriarchippus annectens n. gen. n. sp." = Transpithecus obtentus2, "Pseudadiantus secans n. sp." = Antepithecus brachystephanus2, "Adpithecus reduncus n. sp." = Antepithecus brachystephanus2, "Pseudadiantus imperfectus n. sp." = Antepithecus brachystephanus2, "Adpithecus secans n. sp." = Notopithecus adapinus2, "Antepithecus gradatus n. sp." = Notopithecus adapinus2
"Transpithecus obtentus" = Transpithecus obtentus3 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN-A 10691a, maxillary M1-2; MACN-A 10691b, M1
"Patriarchippus annectens n. gen. n. sp." = Transpithecus obtentus2 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10691, maxilla M1-2 (lectotype); unassociated M2
"Pseudadiantus secans n. sp." = Antepithecus brachystephanus2 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10669(a), dentary p2-3
"Adpithecus reduncus n. sp." = Antepithecus brachystephanus2 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10858, dentary m2-3 (lectotype), dentary m1-2
"Pseudadiantus imperfectus n. sp." = Antepithecus brachystephanus2 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10669(b), dentary p1-2
"Adpithecus secans n. sp." = Notopithecus adapinus2 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN 10790, skull and jaws
"Antepithecus gradatus n. sp." = Notopithecus adapinus2 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN 10828, two left upper molars and a maxillary fragment
 Notoungulata - Henricosborniidae
"Henricosbornia lophodonta n. gen. n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1, "Hemistylops paucicuspidatus n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1, "Hemistylops trigonostyloides n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1, "Pantostylops completus n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1, "Microstylops monoconus n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1, "Prohyracotherium patagonicum n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1, "Microstylops clarus n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1, "Selenoconus spiculatus n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1, "Prohyracotherium matutinum n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1
"Henricosbornia lophodonta n. gen. n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10808, maxillary with P3-M3; right lower jaw fragment with m2 and broken m1
"Hemistylops paucicuspidatus n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10714, left M3
"Hemistylops trigonostyloides n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10710, broken right M3
"Pantostylops completus n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10716, two right upper molars
"Microstylops monoconus n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10713, right M1 or M2
"Prohyracotherium patagonicum n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10675, left M1 or M2
"Microstylops clarus n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10715, right M1 or M2
"Selenoconus spiculatus n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10795, right m3
"Prohyracotherium matutinum n. sp." = Henricosbornia lophodonta1 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10676, left M1 or M2
 Notoungulata -
Acoelodus terminalis n. sp.2 Ameghino 1902 notoungulate
MACN 10755, M?1
Acoelodus debilitatus n. sp.2 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN 10376, skull, holotype; MACN 10400, partial skull
Acoelodus oppositus n. sp.2 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN 10770, dentary fragment with p2-3 and part of p4. Original type but replaced by a neotype from Gran Barranca by Simpson (1967). Simpson (1970, ref. 57986) indicated that this action is invalid and that the original type remains valid.
Lophiodonticulus retroversus n. sp.2 Ameghino 1902 notoungulate
MACN 10636, dentary m1-2. Simpson (1967b, ref. 57943) listed the type locality as Río Chico Oeste, but Simpson (1967a, ref. 10312) records it as just 'Casamayoran ("Partie supérieure")'
 Cingulata - Dasypodidae
"Astegotherium dichotomus n. gen. n. sp." = Astegotherium dichotomum1, "Anteutatus lenis n. sp." = Utaetus lenis1
"Astegotherium dichotomus n. gen. n. sp." = Astegotherium dichotomum1 Ameghino 1902 armadillo
MACN 10421, 21 scutes
"Anteutatus lenis n. sp." = Utaetus lenis1 Ameghino 1902 armadillo
MACN 10425, seven scutes
 Ungulata - Didolodontidae
"Didolodus multicuspis n. sp." = Didolodus multicuspis1, "Didolodus dispar n. sp." = Didolodus multicuspis1, "Didolodus crassicuspis n. sp." = Didolodus multicuspis1, Argyrolambda conidens n. gen. n. sp.2, "Ernestokokenia nitida n. sp." = Ernestokokenia nitida1, "Ernestokokenia marginata n. sp." = Ernestokokenia nitida1
"Didolodus multicuspis n. sp." = Didolodus multicuspis1 Ameghino 1897 eutherian
MACN 10690, left maxilla with P2-M3
"Didolodus dispar n. sp." = Didolodus multicuspis1 Ameghino 1897 eutherian
MACN 10733, broken right M2
"Didolodus crassicuspis n. sp." = Didolodus multicuspis1 Ameghino 1897 eutherian
MACN 10689, right p2-m3
Argyrolambda conidens n. gen. n. sp.2 Ameghino 1904 eutherian
MACN A55-8, crown cap of a right upper molar
"Ernestokokenia nitida n. sp." = Ernestokokenia nitida1 Ameghino 1901 eutherian
MACN 10735, left m2 and broken left m3
"Ernestokokenia marginata n. sp." = Ernestokokenia nitida1 Ameghino 1901 eutherian
MACN 10722, left m1
 Ungulata - Macraucheniidae
Ernestohaeckelia aculeata n. gen. n. sp.1
Ernestohaeckelia aculeata n. gen. n. sp.1 Ameghino 1901 eutherian
"Presumably an isolated upper molar. Not found."
 Ungulata - Proterotheriidae
"Heterolambda lunulata n. gen. n. sp." = Ricardolydekkeria lunulata1, Ricardolydekkeria cinctula n. sp.1, Lambdaconus suinus n. gen. n. sp., Anisolambda fissidens n. sp.1
"Heterolambda lunulata n. gen. n. sp." = Ricardolydekkeria lunulata1 Ameghino 1904 eutherian
Isolated upper cheek tooth. Lost, but cast preserved (AMNH 11876). Simpson (1967) relocated the holotype, MACN A55-4.
Ricardolydekkeria cinctula n. sp.1 Ameghino 1904 eutherian
MACN 10705, right upper cheek tooth
Lambdaconus suinus n. gen. n. sp. Ameghino 1897 eutherian
MACN 10718, dentary ?m2
Anisolambda fissidens n. sp.1 Ameghino 1901 eutherian
MACN 10668, right m1-2 (lectotype) and left m1-2 of two individuals
 Ungulata -
Eolicaphrium primarium n. gen. n. sp.1
Eolicaphrium primarium n. gen. n. sp.1 Ameghino 1902 eutherian
Not found. Fragment of lower jaw with i1, i3; alveoli of i2, c, p1-2
 Ungulata - Protolipternidae
Asmithwoodwardia subtrigona n. gen. n. sp.1 Ameghino 1901 eutherian
MACN 10723, one upper molar (probably M2) and one lower molar (m1 or m2). Upper is the lectotype.
 Ungulata - Trigonostylopidae
Albertogaudrya unica n. gen. n. sp.2, Hedralophus bicostatus n. gen. n. sp.2
Albertogaudrya unica n. gen. n. sp.2 Ameghino 1901 eutherian
MACN 12000, upper molar (lectotype), other associated teeth; fragments and an astragalus; MACN 12001, mandible with right p2-m3 and left p4-m3
Hedralophus bicostatus n. gen. n. sp.2 Ameghino 1901 eutherian
MACN 10938, P3 or P4 (lectotype); other referred material probably not conspecific
  -
Anisorhizus atriarius n. gen. n. sp.2, Anagonia insulata n. gen. n. sp.2
Anisorhizus atriarius n. gen. n. sp.2 Ameghino 1902 mammal
MACN 10620, cheek tooth
Anagonia insulata n. gen. n. sp.2 Ameghino 1904 mammal
MACN 10635, ?p4
 Sparassodonta - Borhyaenidae
Argyrolestes peralestinus n. gen. n. sp.1
Argyrolestes peralestinus n. gen. n. sp.1 Ameghino 1902 metatherian
MACN 10331, broken upper molar, holotype
 Polydolopimorphia - Polydolopidae
"Polydolops thomasi" = Polydolops thomasi1, "Orthodolops sciurinus n. sp." = Polydolops thomasi1, Polydolops serra n. sp.1, Polydolops clavulus n. sp.1, "Anadolops thylacoleoides n. gen. n. sp." = Amphidolops serrula1
"Polydolops thomasi" = Polydolops thomasi1 Ameghino 1897 metatherian
MACN 10337, mandible with p3-m4; MACN 10343, mandible with m3-4; from ref. 57557 (Marshall 1982): MACN 10350, 10351, 16382
"Orthodolops sciurinus n. sp." = Polydolops thomasi1 Ameghino 1897 metatherian
MACN 10336, mandible with broken p3-m2 and complete m3-4
Polydolops serra n. sp.1 Ameghino 1902 metatherian
MACN 10341, mandible with p3, m1, fragment of m2, lectotype
Polydolops clavulus n. sp.1 Ameghino 1902 metatherian
MACN 10356, mandible p3-m2, lectotype; MACN 10360, mandible m1-3
"Anadolops thylacoleoides n. gen. n. sp." = Amphidolops serrula1 Ameghino 1902 metatherian
MACN 10339, mandible m2-4, holotype
 Theriiformes - Peradectidae
Caroloameghinia tenuis n. sp.1 Ameghino 1901 metatherian
MACN 10345, maxilla M1-4, holotype
Caroloameghinia mater n. gen. n. sp.2 Ameghino 1901 metatherian
MACN A55-13, holotype, mandible
 Theriiformes -
Odontomysops spiniferus n. gen. n. sp.1
Odontomysops spiniferus n. gen. n. sp.1 Ameghino 1902 marsupial
"Upper incisor and fragment of lower jaw with incisor root, three alveoli, and an unerupted tooth. Present whereabouts of type unknown." Simpson (1967) relocated the types, MACN A55-2a (subconical tooth, canine or perhaps incisor), A55-2b, anterior fragment of left dentary with fragments of teeth), A55-2c (small lower jaw fragment). The specimens probably are not conspecific.
  -
Pachypithecus macrognathus n. gen. n. sp. Ameghino 1897 mammal
MACN 10817, edentulous mandible
Archaeorycteropus patagonicus n. sp.1 Ameghino 1905 mammal
Broken distal tibia, not found in Ameghino collection