Big Spring Canyon (Miocene of the United States)

Also known as UCMP V-3322; SDSM V-512; Ed Ross Ranch

Where: Bennett County, South Dakota (43.2° N, 101.8° W: paleocoordinates 43.7° N, 99.2° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

When: Clarendonian (13.6 - 10.3 Ma)

Environment/lithology: terrestrial

Size class: macrofossils

Reposited in the SDSM

Primary reference: J. T. Gregory. 1942. Pliocene Vertebrates From Big Spring Canyon South Dakota. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geological Sciences 26(4):307-446 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/J. Marcot]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 18063: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 05.08.1992, edited by Jonathan Marcot

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• earlier AMNH collections are from site 1
sites 1-3, 5-10, 12, and 15-19 are within about 130 m of each other in less than a 20 foot interval; site 4 includes only the type of P. magnifontis, also known from the main quarry; 13 and 14 include only Eucastor
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Eucastor sp. Allen 1877 beaver
AMNH specimen described by Stirton 1935
 Rodentia - Mylagaulidae
Mylagaulidae indet.6 Cope 1881 rodent
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Hypolagus fontinalis n. sp.2 Dawson 1958 rabbit
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Domninoides sp.5 Green 1956 mole
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Teleoceras major8 Hatcher 1894 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equidae indet.1 Gray 1821 horse
Pseudhipparion cf. gratum Leidy 1869 hipparionine horse
Nannippus sp.4 Matthew 1926 hipparionine horse
pers. commun.: "A"
Pliohippus cf. pernix Marsh 1874 horse
Calippus martini4 Hesse 1936 horse
pers. commun.
Hypohippus sp. Leidy 1858 anchitheriine horse
 Carnivora - Barbourofelidae
Barbourofelis whitfordi1 Barbour and Cook 1915 carnivoran
 Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
Ischyrocyon gidleyi1 Matthew 1902 bear-dog
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Mustelidae indet. Fischer 1817 mustelid carnivore
"cf. Bassariscus or Leptarctus"
Martes campestris Gregory 1942 marten
 Carnivora - Canidae
Leptocyon matthewi7, Aelurodon taxoides, "Aelurodon inflatus n. sp." = Epicyon saevus
Leptocyon matthewi7 Tedford et al. 2009 canine
"Vulpes": see description of Nelson & Madsen 1987
Aelurodon taxoides Hatcher 1894 bone-crushing dog
see also Wang et al. 1999
"Aelurodon inflatus n. sp." = Epicyon saevus Leidy 1858 bone-crushing dog
 Carnivora - Felidae
Pseudaelurus sp. Leidy 1858 cat
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Amebelodon sp. Barbour 1927 gomphothere
 Ungulata - Merycoidodontidae
"Merychyus novomexicanus" = Ustatochoerus medius novomexicanus1
"Merychyus novomexicanus" = Ustatochoerus medius novomexicanus1 Frick 1929 oreodont
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Macrogenis crassigenis9 Matthew and Gidley 1904 peccary
"BSC"
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Camelidae indet.1 Gray 1821 camel
? Protolabis sp. Cope 1876 camel
confirmed by Honey and Taylor 1978
Procamelus grandis Gregory 1939 camel
Pliauchenia magnifontis Gregory 1939 camel
 Ungulata - Palaeomerycidae
Cranioceras unicornis3 Matthew 1918 ruminant
 Ungulata - Antilocapridae
Cosoryx cf. furcatus1 Leidy 1869 pronghorn
 Ungulata - Moschidae
Longirostromeryx wellsi Matthew 1904 musk deer