The odd-toed ungulate family Equidae includes all living and fossil horses. It spread throughout the northern hemisphere shortly after it originated in the earliest Eocene and reached Africa by the late Miocene. It was diverse and abundant in North America throughout the Cenozoic, and several subclades including the low-crowned anchitheriines, the high-crowned hipparionines, and the modern genus Equus emigrated to the Old World at different times.
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Full reference: J. E. Gray. 1821. On the natural arrangement of vertebrose animals. The London Medical Repository Monthly Journal and Review 15:296-310
See also Baskin 1991, Bonaparte 1850, Carroll 1988, Cope 1881, Cope 1889, Dos Santos Avilla et al. 2015, Eshelman et al. 2018, Ferrusquía-Villafranca et al. 2014, Flower 1883, Flower and Lydekker 1891, Forsten 1975, Franzen 2006, Froehlich 2002, Gray 1821, Gray 1825, Hay 1902, Hulbert and Whitmore 2006, Johnson 1966, Kurten and Anderson 1980, Lambe 1908, Lance 1950, Leidy 1873, MacFadden 1986, MacFadden 2009, Mooser 1958, Mooser 1968, Nowak 1991, Prothero and Schoch 1989, Quinn 1955, Quinn 1957, Rose et al. 2012 and Thurmond and Jones 1981
Subtaxa: Anchitheriinae Duchesnehippus Eohippus Epihippus Equinae Erihippus Gobihippus Hipphaplus Hyracotheriinae Lophiopus Minippus Orohippus Plesiohipparion Pliolophus Protohippinae Protorohippus Sifrhippus Sivalhippus Xenicohippus
Ecology: ground dwelling browser