Hitz Bed, sample 1 (HW1) (Ordovician of the United States)

Also known as Hitz Bed, sample 1 (HW1), Upper Whitewater Formation, Madison, IN

Where: Indiana (38.8° N, 85.4° W: paleocoordinates 25.6° S, 59.0° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• hand sample-level geographic resolution

When: Rhipidognathus symmetricus conodont zone, Hitz Member (Upper Whitewater Formation), Richmondian (449.5 - 443.7 Ma)

• Late Richmondian age. Sample #1 collected. Details on stratigraphy and sedimentation (lithology), and additional details of gastropod and bivalve fauna are included from Novack-Gottshall and Miller (2003) [PBDB reference #18186] and field notes. C6.

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: lagoonal or restricted shallow subtidal; lithified, pyritic, shelly/skeletal, gray wackestone and lithified, pyritic, shelly/skeletal, gray packstone

• Sequence C6 (from Holland and Patzkowsky, 1996). Some fossils (possibly coral Grewingkia) may be stunted in growth; possible evidence, with ostracodes and other fauna, for restricted marine settings.
• Thin-bedded, fossiliferous bryozoan wackestone/packstone bed with rare, reddish pyrite cubes.

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils, microfossils

Preservation: cast, mold/impression, recrystallized, original calcite, replaced with calcite, replaced with phosphate

Collection methods: bulk, mechanical,

• Bulk collection made in field and weighed, cleaned, prepped, and identified in lab at University of Cincinnati. Sample weighed 2.7741 Kg. 41 specimens counted; 30 individuals estimated (using half of total disarticulated specimens with two parts plus number of articulated/intact specimens). Taxa counted using percent-coverage not included in this tally. Bryozoans and ostracodes were counted as estimated percent cover using standard percent cover reference chart.

Primary reference: P. M. Novack-Gottshall. 1999. Comparative geographic and environmental diversity dynamics of gastropods and bivalves during the Ordovician Radiation (M.S. thesis, University of Cincinnati). 1-191 [P. Novack-Gottshall/P. Novack-Gottshall/P. Novack-Gottshall]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 64165: authorized by Phil Novack-Gottshall, entered by Phil Novack-Gottshall on 03.09.2006

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Representative samples (standards) of species used for taxonomic identification reference are stored at the University of Cincinnati.
Scolecodonta indet.
1 fragment of a scolecodont tooth, black color, probably apatite replacement?
 Phacopida - Calymenidae
Flexicalymene meeki Foerste 1910 trilobite
1 intact body (except cephalon) and 1 cephalon, recrystallized
Ostracoda indet. Latreille 1802 ostracod
Disarticulated valves, recrystallized
 Strophomenida - Strophomenidae
? Holtedahlina sulcata Hall and Clarke 1892
1 brachial valve, recrystallized
? Strophomena ? planumbona Hall 1847
1 complete specimen (articulated), recrystallized
 Orthida - Dalmanellidae
Onniella macerata
3 pedicle valves, all recrystallized
 Orthida - Plaesiomyidae
"Plaesiomys subquadrata" = Plaesiomys subquadratus
"Plaesiomys subquadrata" = Plaesiomys subquadratus Hall 1847
1 valve, recrystallized
 Myalinida - Ambonychiidae
Ambonychia sp. Hall 1847 clam
21 disarticulated valves, all recrystallized or inferred from organic mold made from encrusting bryozoans; one specimen encrusted with Cornulites tube colony
 Cardiidia - Grammysiidae
? Cuneamya miamiensis Hall and Whitfield 1875 clam
1 valve, preserved as sediment cast; possibly Modiolopsis concentrica
 Euomphalina - Holopeidae
? Holopea sp. Hall 1847 snail
1 shell, recrystallized
 Euomphalina - Raphistomatidae
"Raphistomina richmondensis" = Scalites richmondensis
"Raphistomina richmondensis" = Scalites richmondensis Ulrich and Scofield 1897 snail
1 shell, recrystallized
 Cornulitida - Cornulitidae
Cornulites formosa
1 colony with three tubes, encrusting Ambonychia, recrystallzied
 Orthocerida - Proteoceratidae
Gorbyoceras hammelli Foerste 1910
3 phragmocones, recrystallized and internal molds
 Trepostomida -
? Batostomella sp.
Smooth, thick, branching bryozoan colonies (possibly Batostomella) encrusting most other fossils, especially disarticulated Ambonychia valves
 Trepostomata - Halloporidae
Halloporidae indet. Bassler 1911
Abundant short, massive, stunted halloporid trepostome bryozoan colonies encrusting most other fossils, especially disarticulated Ambonychia valves
 Trepostomata - Monticuliporidae
Prasopora sp. Nicholson and Etheridge 1877
3 hemispherical-shaped colonies, recrystallized
 Stauriida - Streptelasmatidae
Grewingkia canadensis horn coral
1 corallum, recrystallized