Order Ctenostomata Busk 1852 (bryozoan)

Gymnolaemata - Ctenostomata

Parent taxon: Gymnolaemata according to D. P. Gordon and P. D. Taylor 2015

See also Boardman and Cheetham 1987, Gordon and Taylor 1999 and Sepkoski 2002

Sister taxa: Cheilostomata, Cheilostomatida

Subtaxa: Amathia Arachnidium Arachnoidella Ascodictyidae Buskia Cardiarachnidium Casteropora Cookobryozoon Euctenostomata Fischerella Foraripora Haimeina Harmeriella Marcusodictyon Marcusopora Orbignyopora Penetrantia Ropalonariidae Simplicidium Spathipora Stolonicella Terebriporidae Vesicularia Vinellidae Vinelloidea Voigtella

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Ecology: stationary epifaunal suspension feeder

Distribution:

• Quaternary of United States (4: California, North Carolina collections)

• Pliocene of Belgium (1), Jamaica (1), United States (1: South Carolina)

• Miocene of Trinidad and Tobago (1)

• Eocene of New Zealand (1)

• Paleocene to Eocene of New Zealand (1)

• Cretaceous of United States (2: New Mexico, Texas)

• Jurassic of the United Kingdom (1), United States (2: Utah, Wyoming)

• Permian of United States (36: Kansas, New Mexico)

• Carboniferous of United States (10: Alabama, Indiana, Oklahoma)

• Devonian of Australia (1), China (1), Poland (1), United States (5: Michigan, Ohio)

• Silurian of the United Kingdom (1), United States (2: New York)

• Ordovician of Estonia (2), Spain (1), United States (13: Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont)

Total: 88 collections including 115 occurrences

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