Subfamily Astartinae d'Orbigny 1844 (clam)

Bivalvia - Carditida - Astartidae

Parent taxon: Astartidae according to J. G. Carter et al. 2011

See also Dockery 1982, Gliozzi and Malatesta 1983, Vokes 1980 and Ward 1992

Sister taxa: Astartellinae, Astartoides, Balantioselena, Coelastarte, Digitaria, Eriphylinae, Lirotarte, Lyapinella, Middalya, Nargunella, Opinae, Oxyeurax, Permartella, Pinzonellinae, Praeconia, Pressastarte, Taxocardia, Terraiinae, Trigonopinae, Woodia

Subtaxa: Astarte Astartella Astartellopsis Hemimenia Megapraeconia Neocrassina Nicaniella Notoastarte Oxyloma Prorokia

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Type: Astarte

Ecology: facultatively mobile infaunal suspension feeder

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Belgium (1 collection), Canada (36: Manitoba, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Quebec), France (1), Greenland (30), Iceland (4), India (1), Ireland (1), Italy (2), Japan (1), the Netherlands (6), Spain (1), Sweden (1), the United Kingdom (15), United States (51: Alaska, Florida, Maine, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of United States (1: Florida)

• Pliocene of Belgium (7), Greece (1), Greenland (1), Italy (1), Japan (4), the Netherlands (1), the Russian Federation (4), the United Kingdom (10), United States (54: Alaska, Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia)

• Miocene to Pliocene of United States (5: Alaska)

• Miocene of Austria (2), Belgium (12), Cyprus (3), Denmark (2), France (1), Germany (50), India (9), Italy (1), Japan (1), Mexico (1), the Netherlands (4), Poland (1), the Russian Federation (2), United States (88: Delaware, Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia)

• Oligocene of Austria (1), Denmark (6), Hungary (1), the Netherlands (1), United States (47: Mississippi, North Carolina)

• Eocene of Pakistan (3), the United Kingdom (1), United States (11: Alabama, Mississippi, New Jersey, Virginia)

• Paleocene of Argentina (4), Denmark (5), Egypt (1), India (1), New Zealand (1), Nigeria (1), Poland (2), the Russian Federation (1), United States (6: Georgia, Maryland, Texas)

• Cretaceous of Albania (1), Argentina (2), Australia (1), Austria (2), Brazil (3), Bulgaria (1), Canada (4: Alberta, British Columbia), China (2), Colombia (2), the Congo-Brazzaville (2), Cuba (1), Denmark (1), Ecuador (1), Egypt (4), France (9), Germany (9), Greenland (5), Hungary (2), India (2), Indian Ocean (1), Italy (2), Jamaica (2), Japan (42), Mexico (4), Mozambique (3), New Zealand (26), Nigeria (6), Peru (1), Poland (7), Portugal (3), the Russian Federation (18), Serbia and Montenegro (1), Spain (8), Switzerland (10), Turkmenistan (1), USSR (20), the United Kingdom (9), United States (74: Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, Texas, Utah, Wyoming)

• Jurassic to Cretaceous of Antarctica (1)

• Jurassic of Antarctica (1), Canada (6: British Columbia, Northwest Territories, Yukon), Chile (8), China (7), Cuba (1), Denmark (8), Egypt (3), Eritrea (1), Ethiopia (3), France (25), Germany (48), Greenland (83), Hungary (3), India (126), Iran (5), Italy (2), Japan (7), Kenya (9), Luxembourg (5), Madagascar (9), Mexico (9), Morocco (9), New Caledonia (3), New Zealand (30), Norway (1), Poland (5), Portugal (77), Romania (1), the Russian Federation (12), Saudi Arabia (26), Somalia (7), Spain (46), Switzerland (29), Tanzania (23), Thailand (5), Tunisia (5), the United Kingdom (48), United States (65: Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Wyoming), Yemen (11)

• Triassic of Argentina (2), Canada (1: British Columbia), China (9), Germany (6), Japan (1), Pakistan (1), Peru (2), United States (7: Alaska, Oregon)

• Leonard of United States (1: Utah)

• Permian of Argentina (1), Australia (5), China (45), Greece (5), Greenland (2), India (1), Japan (12), Mexico (3), Oman (3), Pakistan (13), Peru (3), the Russian Federation (18), Singapore (1), Tunisia (1), the United Kingdom (8), United States (38: Arizona, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Texas, Utah, Wyoming), Venezuela (1)

• Virgilian of United States (31: Illinois, Maryland, New Mexico, Ohio, Texas)

• Desmoinesian of United States (24: Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania)

• Atokan of United States (1: Wyoming)

• Westphalian of Spain (1), United States (1: Kentucky)

• Chesterian of United States (2: Ohio, Wyoming)

• Carboniferous of Brazil (1), Mexico (2), Peru (2), South Korea (1), United States (31: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, New Mexico, New mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas, Wyoming)

• Devonian of Italy (1), Poland (1)

• Silurian of the Czech Republic (2), Italy (1), Poland (3)

• Ordovician of the Czech Republic (1)

Total: 1871 collections including 2477 occurrences

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