Subfamily Trochinae Rafinesque 1815 (top snail)

Gastropoda - Trochoidea - Trochidae

Synonyms: Gibbulinae Stoliczka 1868, Gibbulini Stoliczka 1868, Monodontini Cossman 1916, Pyramidinae Gray 1847

Parent taxon: Trochidae according to M. Harzhauser et al. 2009

See also Beesley 1998, Bouchet et al. 2005, DeVries and Hess 2004, Donald et al. 2005, Gardner 1948, Harzhauser 2002, Harzhauser 2004, Harzhauser 2007, Knight et al. 1960, Lozouet et al. 2001, MacNeil 1960, van den Hoek Ostende et al. 2002 and Wilson 1993

Sister taxa: Aaleniella, Anticonulus, Antisolarium, Buckmanina, Calliostomatinae, Canthardinae, Chlorostoma, Chuelskia, Cirsostylus, Cittarium, Cochleochilus, Coeloconulus, Coralastele, Enida, Eocalliostoma, Eucyclinae, Francisciconcha, Gena, Granulifera, Halistylinae, Hybochelus, Karabolkia, Lirulariinae, Lithotrochus, Livona, Margarella, Margaritinae, Microgaza, Monodontinae, Norrisia, Parvitomella, Phorcus, Prothalotia, Serratotrochus, Solariconulus, Solariellinae, Stelzneria, Stomatellinae, Suavotrochus, Synaptocochlea, Thalotia, Trochaclididae, Trochaclis, Trochotectus, Trochus, Turcicula, Umboniinae, Vacekia, Eostomias, Stomatiinae

Subtaxa: Alcyna Austrocochlea Calthalotia Cantharidella Cantharidini Cantharidus Chlorodiloma Clanculus Diloma Discotectus Eurytrochus Fagnastesia Infundibulum Monodonta Nanula Notogibbula Osilinus Phasianotrochus Phorculus Plectotrochus Pyramis Tectus Thoristella Timisia Tosatrochus Trochini

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Ecology: epifaunal grazer

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Australia (12 collections), Djibouti (2), Egypt (1), Eritrea (2), France (1), India (1), Italy (3), Japan (13), Kenya (5), Morocco (11), New Zealand (3), Northern Mariana Islands (1), Saudi Arabia (4), the Seychelles (6), South Africa (5), Spain (5), Tonga (6), United States (1: South Carolina), Vanuatu (2)

• Pliocene of Australia (1), Cyprus (1), Fiji (3), Indonesia (1), Japan (1), Peru (5), South Africa (5), Spain (4)

• Neogene of Christmas Island (1)

• Miocene of Algeria (8), Australia (3), Austria (3), Chile (1), France (1), Hungary (1), India (4), Indonesia (8), Italy (3), Japan (5), Morocco (2), New Zealand (2), Northern Mariana Islands (1), Oman (1), Pakistan (1), Peru (1), Poland (1), Slovakia (1), Spain (1), Sri Lanka (4)

• Oligocene of Bulgaria (1), Greece (2), Iran (4), Italy (2), Oman (1), Pakistan (1)

• Eocene of Australia (1), Croatia (1), France (2), Germany (1), Italy (2), New Zealand (1), Romania (3), Spain (1), United States (1: South Carolina)

• Paleocene of Belgium (1), France (1), Greenland (1), India (1), Nigeria (1), Poland (2)

• Cretaceous of Austria (1), France (3), Germany (3), Iran (1), Jamaica (3), Japan (4), Mexico (2), the United Kingdom (1), United States (1: Texas)

• Jurassic of France (1), Italy (1), Yemen (1)

• Triassic of Italy (1)

Total: 212 collections including 288 occurrences

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