Order Protomonaxonida Finks et al. 2004 (demosponge)

Demospongea - Protomonaxonida

Full reference: R. M. Finks, R. E. H. Reid, and J. K. Rigby. 2004. Porifera (Demospongea, Hexactinellida, Heteractinida, Calcarea). Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology Part E, Revised E(3):1-872

Parent taxon: Demospongea according to J. K. Rigby and P. von Bitter 2005

Sister taxa: Aplysinofibra, Axinellidae, Ceractinomorpha, Chaetetida, Choristida, Clavulina, Coniculospongia, Consinocodium, Desmacellidae, Dictyonellidae, Epipolasida, Ginkgospongia, Guadalupiida, Halichondriidae, Haplosclerida, Hemiasterellidae, Heteroscleromorpha, Ichnospongia, Incrustospongia, Infexiostella, Janussenia, Karatubulus, Keratosa, Lithistida, Lovcenipora, Metschnikowia, Myxospongiae, Offella, Operculospongia, Paraaplysinofibria, Permosphincta, Petrosina, Poecilosclerida, Polymastidae, Protohyalostelia, Raspailiidae, Reniera, Riasanospongia, Scopalinidae, Sphaeriella, Spirastrellidae, Spongillina, Spongiopsammia, Stelligeridae, Suberitidae, Tabasiidae, Tabulospongida, Tetractinellida, Tetractinomorpha, Timeidae, Trachycladidae, Trichospongia, Verticillitida

Subtaxa: Choiidae Halichondritidae Hamptoniidae Hazeliidae Leptomitidae Lobatospongia Piraniidae Sollasellidae Takakkawiidae Tethyidae Ulospongiellidae Wapkiidae

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Ecology: stationary intermediate-level epifaunal suspension feeder

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Canada (3: Ontario collections)

• Miocene of Portugal (1)

• Eocene of Spain (1)

• Cretaceous of Germany (3), the Russian Federation (1), USSR (1)

• Jurassic of Germany (1), the Russian Federation (1)

• Permian of United States (4: Texas, Utah)

• Carboniferous of United States (2: Illinois, Texas)

• Devonian of Germany (1)

• Silurian of Canada (2: British Columbia)

• Ordovician of Canada (1: Manitoba), Morocco (2), the United Kingdom (5)

• Marjumian of United States (4: Utah)

• Cambrian of Australia (1), Canada (48: Brithish Columbia, British Columbia), China (38), Greenland (4), Iran (1), the Russian Federation (2), Spain (4), United States (12: Pennsylvania, Utah, Vermont)

Total: 143 collections including 401 occurrences

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