Girvanella Nicholson and Etheridge 1878

Girvanella

Full reference: H. A. Nicholson and R. Etheridge. 1878. A Monograph of the Silurian Fossils of the Girvan District in Ayrshire. Vol. I, fasc. I.

Parent taxon: Cyanophyta according to H. M. C. Danielli 1981

See also Kiessling 2003 and Vokes 1980

Sister taxa: Aulophycus, Bevocastria, Chroococcales, Cladogirvanella, Hecetaphyton, Morania, Obruchevella, Platella, Pleurocapsales, Rhyniella, Sphaerina, Subtifloria, Tuxekanella, Renalcis, Rothpletzella, Porostromata, Desmekalamos, Cladophorites, Lithocodium, Aphralysiaceae, Oscillatoriacea, Setula, Sphaerocodium, Garwoodiaceae, Sigmopollis, Ludlovia, Rivulariaceae

Subtaxa: Girvanella problematica Girvanella richmondensis

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Ecology: stationary epifaunal "photoautotroph"

Distribution:

• Miocene of Italy (1 collection)

• Paleocene of Croatia (1)

• Cretaceous of Brazil (2), the Czech Republic (1), Egypt (1), France (1), Germany (2), Japan (1), the Marshall Islands (1), Spain (1), Tunisia (1)

• Jurassic to Cretaceous of Japan (1)

• Jurassic of Germany (2), Myanmar (1), Poland (1), Portugal (8), Spain (2), Thailand (2), the United Kingdom (1)

• Triassic of Austria (5), France (1), Greece (1), Italy (5), Japan (2), Oman (1), Poland (1)

• Permian of China (2), Germany (2), Japan (1), Mexico (1), Norway (3), Slovenia (2), Tajikistan (1), Turkey (5), United States (2: New Mexico, Texas)

• Virgilian of United States (1: Idaho)

• Chesterian of United States (2: Arkansas)

• Osagean of United States (1: New Mexico)

• Carboniferous of Algeria (1), Australia (2), Austria (2), France (1), Ireland (7), Japan (1), the Russian Federation (1), Spain (4), Turkey (1), the United Kingdom (7), United States (2: Oklahoma, Wyoming)

• Mississippian of United States (1: Colorado)

• Devonian of Afghanistan (14), Australia (8), Belgium (3), Canada (6: Alberta, Northwest Territories, Nunavut), China (9), the Czech Republic (3), France (1), Germany (10), Morocco (4), Poland (3), the Russian Federation (10), Spain (4), Tajikistan (2), United States (1: Alaska)

• Silurian of Canada (6: Ontario, Quebec, Québec), China (1), India (1), the Russian Federation (2), Sweden (1), Ukraine (4), the United Kingdom (4), United States (3: Alaska)

• Ordovician of Argentina (1), Australia (2), Canada (13: Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario, Quebec), China (18), Kazakhstan (3), Norway (2), the Russian Federation (3), the United Kingdom (3), United States (47: Alabama, Michigan, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia)

• Chazy of Canada (3: Quebec), United States (1: Virginia)

• Llandeilo of Australia (2)

• Whiterockian of United States (2: Nevada)

• Arenig of Australia (1), Canada (3: Newfoundland and Labrador), United States (5: Oklahoma, Texas)

• Cassinian of United States (1: Texas)

• Arenigian of Argentina (1)

• Jeffersonian of United States (1: Texas)

• Canadian of United States (3: Virginia)

• Jefferson of United States (3: Oklahoma)

• Marjumian of Canada (1: British Columbia), South Korea (1)

• Cambrian of Antarctica (2), Australia (9), Canada (2: Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories), China (5), Germany (1), Iran (2), Italy (10), Mexico (5), Mongolia (8), Morocco (6), the Russian Federation (4), Spain (4), United States (8: Colorado, Nevada, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia)

• Ediacaran of China (1)

Total: 387 collections including 415 occurrences

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