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Chirostenotes pergracilis

Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Caenagnathidae

Taxonomy
Chirostenotes pergracilis was named by Gilmore (1924). Its type specimen is CMN 2367, a set of limb elements (nearly complete articulated L and R manus), and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is 2 miles northeast of mouth, Little Sandhill Creek, which is in a Campanian terrestrial horizon in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Canada.

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1924Chirostenotes pergracilis Gilmore p. 3
1930Chirostenotes pergracilis Russell p. 148
1932Macrophalangia canadensis Sternberg p. 100
1964Chirostenotes pergracilis Russell p. 12
1964Macrophalangia canadensis Russell p. 12
1966Macrophalangia canadensis Russell p. 25
1969Chirostenotes pergracilis Ostrom p. 148
1970Chirostenotes pergracilis Steel p. 13
1970Macrophalangia canadensis Steel p. 19
1970Macrophalangia canadensis Swinton p. 133
1971Caenagnathus sternbergi Cracraft
1972Chirostenotes pergracilis Russell p. 376
1972Macrophalangia canadensis Russell p. 376
1978Caenagnathus sternbergi Brodkorb p. 224
1978Chirostenotes pergracilis Sues pp. 395-396
1981Caenagnathus sternbergi Barsbold
1981Macrophalangia canadensis Osmolska p. 88
1981Chirostenotes pergracilis Osmolska p. 89
1982Caenagnathus sternbergi Morris p. 488
1983Caenagnathus sternbergi Barsbold p. 95
1984Chirostenotes pergracilis Welles p. 158
1986Caenagnathus sternbergi Gauthier p. 9
1986Chirostenotes pergracilis Gauthier p. 9
1986Macrophalangia canadensis Gauthier p. 9
1987Caenagnathus sternbergi Currie p. 52
1987Chirostenotes pergracilis Currie p. 52
1988Chirostenotes pergracilis Currie and Russell
1988Caenagnathus sternbergi Currie and Russell p. 984
1988Chirostenotes pergracilis Paul p. 373
1989Chirostenotes pergracilis Currie p. 1323
1992Caenagnathus sternbergi Currie p. 246
1992Chirostenotes pergracilis Currie p. 246
1994Caenagnathus sternbergi Currie et al.
1997Chirostenotes pergracilis Eberth p. 201
1997Chirostenotes pergracilis Norell and Makovicky p. 20
1997Chirostenotes pergracilis Sues p. 699
1998Chirostenotes pergracilis Makovicky and Norell p. 13
2000Chirostenotes pergracilis Currie p. 276
2001Chirostenotes pergracilis Eberth et al. p. 58
2001Chirostenotes sternbergi Eberth et al. p. 58
2001Caenagnathus sternbergi Varricchio p. 46
2002Chirostenotes pergracilis Maryanska et al. p. 101 fig. 1
2003Chirostenotes pergracilis Rauhut p. 40
2003Chirostenotes pergracilis Zanno and Sampson p. 113A
2004Chirostenotes pergracilis Lü et al. p. 109 fig. 8
2004Chirostenotes pergracilis Osmólska et al. p. 166
2005Chirostenotes pergracilis Currie p. 4
2005Chirostenotes pergracilis Lü and Zhang p. 417
2008Chirostenotes pergracilis Longrich p. 994
2009Chirostenotes pergracilis Balanoff et al. p. 21
2009Caenagnathus sternbergi Zanno et al. p. S15
2011Chirostenotes pergracilis Sullivan et al. p. 428
2012Chirostenotes pergracilis Gao et al. p. 8
2013Chirostenotes pergracilis Longrich et al. p. 29
2014Caenagnathus sternbergi Lamanna et al. p. 10 fig. 6
2014Chirostenotes pergracilis Lamanna et al. p. 10 fig. 6
2014Macrophalangia canadensis Lamanna et al. p. 10 fig. 6
2015Chirostenotes pergracilis Funston et al. p. 180
2015Caenagnathus sternbergi Tsuihiji et al. p. 61
2015Chirostenotes pergracilis White et al. p. 11
2016Chirostenotes pergracilis Funston and Currie p. 1
2016Chirostenotes pergracilis Wang et al. p. 12

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
RankNameAuthor
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Theropoda()
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
orderAvetheropoda
suborderCoelurosauria
Maniraptora
infraorderOviraptorosauria
superfamilyCaenagnathoideaSternberg 1940
familyCaenagnathidae
genusChirostenotes
speciespergracilis

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
H.-D. Sues 1997Aside from its larger size, the mandible of Chirostenotes pergracilis is distinguished from the material here referred to C. elegans by the possession of a more elongate and shallower dentary, a proportionately longer mandibular symphysis, and the presence of a median ridge on the dorsal (lingual) aspect of the mandibular symphysis.
N. R. Longrich et al. 2013Medium-sized caenagnathid (symphyseal length approximately 45 mm, dentary length approximately 120 mm, metatarsus length approximately 210 mm). Beak with tip elon- gate and anteriorly projecting (Figure 4B), but not to the extreme seen in Caenagnathus collinsi. Symphysis extended caudally between lingual shelves but again, not to the degree seen in Caenag- nathus. Posterior rami of dentaries moderately divergent, forming an angle of approximately 30° in dorsal view. Tip of beak with four lingual ridges. Dentary excluded from dorsal margin of external mandibular fenestra by surangular. Ventral flange of surangular prominent and everted laterally. Quadrate articulation strongly convex in lateral view, with medially expanded, tongue-like medial cotyle. Manual phalanges extremely long and slender; manual unguals slender and weakly arched, flexor tubercles distally positioned.