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Arca (ark)

Bivalvia - Arcida - Arcidae

Species
A. (Arca), A. (Byssoarca), A. (Fossularca), A. (Tosarca), A. abrupta, A. aldrichi, A. angusta, A. augusta, A. avellana (syn. A. arabica), A. bailyi, A. bavarica, A. bezanconi, A. biangula, A. biloba, A. blanfordi, A. brahminica, A. caelata, A. camaronesia, A. capulopsis, A. cardiiformis, A. chevallieri, A. choffati, A. cholana, A. clathrata, A. clellandi, A. columbiana, A. cordata, A. coxi, A. dalli, A. debilis, A. delandensis, A. divaricata, A. douvillei, A. feddeni, A. formosissima, A. fuscoides, A. galei, A. gamana, A. geulemensis, A. hamelini, A. harrisi, A. hispida, A. holmesii, A. impavida, A. incerta, A. interrupta, A. japetica, A. kannegieteri, A. koerti, A. labiata, A. lactea, A. lakei, A. larkhanaensis, A. lata, A. limula, A. mcnairyensis, A. mekranica, A. microdonta, A. miliacea, A. minuata, A. montereyana, A. mutabilis, A. nannodes, A. negata, A. newtoni, A. nitida, A. nuda, A. obeidi, A. ovata, A. pacifica, A. pantheonensis, A. particularis, A. peethensis, A. perdisparis, A. perpectinata, A. prephina, A. procumbens, A. protracta, A. pseudoantiquata, A. pseudonavicularis, A. quadrilatera, A. radiata, A. rivulata, A. rudis, A. salomonensis, A. sandbergeri, A. sespeensis, A. socialis, A. spiekeri, A. squamosa, A. striatula, A. stricklandi, A. subfiligrana, A. sublata, A. submultiformis, A. sulcicosta, A. tetragona, A. tirolensis, A. tjidamarensis, A. trinchinopolitensis, A. uhligi, A. valdensis, A. valdiviana, A. vanholsti, A. vaughani, A. ventricosa, A. wagneriana, A. zebra, Navicula hennedyi, Navicula tutamoensis, Scapharca zorritensis

View classification of included taxa

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1758Arca Linnaeus p. 693
1825Navicula Blainville p. 216
1904Arca Glenn p. 385
1913Arca Böhm and Weisfermel p. 63
1928Arca Nagao p. 26
1931Arca Grant and Gale p. 137
1931Arca (Navicula) Grant and Gale p. 142
1931Arca Olsson p. 38
1935Arca Oostingh p. 124
1935Arca (Navicula) Oostingh p. 125
1943Arca Gardner p. 22
1947Arca (Navicula) Abrard p. 94
1958Arca DuBar p. 154
1967Arca Olsson p. 6
1969Arca da Silva Forti p. 65
1972Arca Hertlein and Grant p. 152
1973Arca Woodring p. 496
1980Arca Vokes p. 11
1982Arca Dockery p. 29
1983Arca Gliozzi and Malatesta p. 88
1991Arca Squires p. 68
1992Arca del Rio p. 13
1995Arca Pacaud and Le Renard p. 175
1996Navicula Jensen p. 37
1998Arca Lamprell and Healy p. 44
1999Arca Frassinetti and Covacevich p. 17
2001Arca Tiwari p. 148
2001Arca Todd
2002Arca Matsubara p. 134
2002Arca Sepkoski, Jr.
2010Arca Bouchet et al.
2012Arca Coan and Valentich-Scott p. 162

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Protostomia
Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
phylumMollusca
classBivalvia
Eubivalvia
RankNameAuthor
subclassAutobranchia(Groblen 1894)
infraclassPteriomorphia(Beurlen 1944)
OstreomorphiFerussac 1822
ArcioniGray 1854
orderArcida(Stoliczka 1871)
superfamilyArcoidea(Lamarck 1809)
familyArcidaeLamarck 1809
genusArca

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
partNmeanminimummaximummedians.d.
height26.483.0014.08.507.78
shell height316.414.021.015.03.79
valve height216.913.022.017.56.36

Composition: aragonitef
Entire body: yesf
Adult length: 10 to < 100f
Adult width: 10 to < 100f
Adult height: 10 to < 100f
Thickness: intermediatef
Folds: minorf
Ribbing: majorf
Spines: nonef
Internal reinforcement: nonef
Ontogeny: accretionf
Environment: lagoonal, coastal, inner shelf, outer shelf, oceanic, brackish, freshwaterf
Locomotion: stationaryg
Attached: yesg
Life habit: epifaunalg
Diet: suspension feederg
Vision: limitedf
Comments: LIFE HISTORY: EP, SE, BA, SU according to Todd (2001).g
Created: 2004-02-29 17:09:41
Modified: 2009-09-09 11:04:20
Source: g = genus, f = family
References: Mikkelsen and Bieler 2008, Aberhan et al. 2004

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Wordian to the top of the Holocene or 268.80000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 265.1 Ma

Collections (728 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Wordian268.8 - 265.1Italy Arca douvillei, Arca salomonensis (108672)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Germany (Hessen) Arca triasina (38545)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0Germany (Saxony-Anhalt) Arca triasina, Arca socialis (201970)
Longobardian242.0 - 235.0Italy (Trentino) Arca tirolensis (44953)
Late/Upper Triassic237.0 - 201.3Germany Arca bavarica (202142)
Julian235.0 - 232.0Italy Arca lata, Arca nuda (137429) Cucullaea formosissima (144634)
Angulata201.3 - 196.5France (Lorraine) Arca pulla (53947)
Early/Lower Hettangian201.3 - 196.5France Arca sp. (39215)
Planorbis201.3 - 196.5France Arca sp. (39382)
Early/Lower Jurassic201.3 - 174.1Mexico (Sonora) Arca sp. (39132)
Pliensbachian190.8 - 182.7United Kingdom (Gloucestershire) Cucullaea stricklandi (204121 204122)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1India (Gujarat) Arca sp. (46470)
Early/Lower Callovian164.7 - 161.2Madagascar Arca sp. (98165)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3New Zealand Arca sp. (133956)
Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian163.5 - 152.1Yemen Arca sublata (94501)
Middle Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7France Arca autissiodorensis (11085)
Middle Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7United Kingdom (England) Arca sp. (22737)
Late/Upper Oxfordian - Early/Lower Kimmeridgian161.2 - 150.8France (Normandy) Arca rhomboidalis (23539)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Ethiopia Arca choffati, Arca sublata (94491)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Madagascar Arca sp. (98193)