Family Clavatulidae Gray 1853 (turrid)

Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Turridae

Alternative spelling: Clavatulinae

Synonyms: Turriculidae Blainville 1824, Turriculinae Blainville 1824

Parent taxon: Turridae according to B. Landau and C. Marques da Silva 2010

See also Addicott 1970, Bouchet et al. 2011, Bouchet et al. 2005, Harzhauser and Mandic 2001, MacNeil 1960, Moore 1976, Olsson 1964, Petuch 1997, Ponder and Warén 1988, Squires 1984, Squires 1987, Wilson 1994, Woodring 1928 and Woodring 1970

Sister taxa: Adelocythara, Amekicythara, Amuletum, Andicula, Awateria, Beretra, Borsoniinae, Carinodrillia, Clavatula, Cochlespirella, Cochlespiropsis, Compsodrillia, Coronia, Crassispira, Cryptoconinae, Cryptogemma, Daphinellinae, Decollidrillia, Defrancia, Drilliinae, Drillinae, Eoclathurella, Eopleurotoma, Eosurcula, Epalxis, Epidirella, Epidirona, Eucheilodon, Fusimilis, Fusiturricula, Gemmula, Genotia, Glabrocythara, Glossispira, Hemisurcula, Hesperiturris, Infracoronia, Inquisitor, Iotyrris, Knefastia, Kuroshioturris, Lepicythara, Leucosyrinx, Lioglyphostoma, Lophiotoma, Lucerapex, Lutema, Lyrosurcula, Maesiella, Michela, Miraclathurella, Monilispira, Muteluma, Nasavusavuia, Optoturris, Pachycythara, Parasyngenochilus, Perrona, Pilsbryspira, Pleurofusia, Pleurotomoides, Polystira, Procerapex, Protosurcula, Pseudoraphitoma, Ptychobela, Ptychosyrinx, Remnita, Scobinella, Sedilia, Sinistrella, Surculites, Surculoma, Tiariturris, Trachelochetus, Trypanotoma, Trypanotopsis, Turricula, Turridrupa, Turrinae, Turrinosyrinx, Turris, Unedogemmula, Vaughanites, Xenuroturris, Zonulispira

Subtaxa: Austrocarina Austrosullivania Clavatula Clionella Cocklespira Fusisyrinx Fusiturricula Glibertturricula Knefastia Makiyamaia Mariaturricula Marshallena Microsurcula Nodisurculina Orthosurcula Paracomitas Paradrillia Pseudocochlespira Pusionella Pyramimitra Turricula Vexitomina

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Ecology: epifaunal carnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Angola (2 collections), Costa Rica (1), Mexico (1), Morocco (3), South Africa (3), Spain (1), Taiwan (12), Thailand (1), United States (2: North Carolina), Vanuatu (2)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of Malaysia (4), South Africa (1), Taiwan (1)

• Pliocene of Costa Rica (2), the Dominican Republic (3), Fiji (1), Greece (2), India (1), Indonesia (6), Iran (1), Italy (20), Japan (1), Papua New Guinea (1), the Philippines (1), Portugal (1), South Africa (1), the United Kingdom (4), United States (1: North Carolina)

• Miocene to Pliocene of South Africa (1)

• Miocene of Austria (5), Chile (1), Colombia (1), Ecuador (4), France (2), Germany (17), Greece (2), India (10), Indonesia (15), Italy (10), Japan (3), Myanmar (5), the Netherlands (1), Pakistan (2), Papua New Guinea (1), Romania (3), Slovakia (3), South Africa (2), Turkey (5), United States (14: California, Florida, Maryland)

• Oligocene of Denmark (2), Hungary (1), Myanmar (3), Peru (1), United States (11: California, Mississippi, Oregon)

• Eocene to Oligocene of United States (5: Oregon)

• Eocene of Angola (1), Belgium (1), Bulgaria (3), Colombia (3), Egypt (1), France (5), Indonesia (2), Italy (1), Mexico (2), Namibia (1), Nigeria (11), Pakistan (3), Peru (5), the Russian Federation (1), the United Kingdom (17), United States (74: Alabama, California, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, Washington)

• Paleocene of Austria (1), Belgium (1), Denmark (7), Egypt (1), France (1), Greenland (4), Nigeria (2), Pakistan (1), Poland (4), United States (37: Alabama, California, Louisiana, Texas)

• Cretaceous of Poland (3), United States (1: Tennessee)

Total: 404 collections including 650 occurrences

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