†subfamily Toryniferinae Carter 1994 (lamp shell)

Rhynchonellata - Spiriferida - Elythidae

Parent taxon: Elythidae according to A. Williams et al. 2006

Sister taxa: Anomaloriinae, Elythinae, Martinothyridinae, Phricodothyridinae, Squamularia, Zhinania

Subtaxa: Plicotorynifer Spirelytha Stepanoviina Taimyrella Torynifer Toryniferella

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Ecology: stationary epifaunal suspension feeder

Distribution:

• Permian of Australia (36 collections), Canada (8: Nunavut, Yukon), China (4), India (1), Indonesia (1), Malaysia (2), Mongolia (2), Pakistan (3), the Russian Federation (25), Tajikistan (1), Thailand (3)

• Pennsylvanian of United States (1: Utah)

• Chesterian of United States (16: Arkansas, Montana, Oklahoma, Wyoming)

• Osagean of Canada (2: Northwest Territories), Mexico (2), United States (10: Indiana, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, Virginia)

• Carboniferous of Canada (15: Alberta, Northwest Territories, Yukon), China (1), the Russian Federation (1), United States (82: Alabama, California, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Montana, Nevada, Oklahoma, Utah)

• Mississippian of United States (4: Alaska, California, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah, California)

• Devonian of Afghanistan (1), Canada (1: Alberta), Germany (2), the United Kingdom (2), United States (2: Arizona, Ohio)

Total: 228 collections including 232 occurrences

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