Family Loveniidae Lambert 1905 (heart urchin)

Echinoidea - Spatangoida - Loveniidae

Full reference: J. Lambert. 1905. Notes sur quelques Echinides éocéniques de l’Aude et de l’Hérault. Catalogue descriptif des fossiles nummulitiques de l’Aude et de l’Hérault. Annales de l’Université de Lyon, Nouvelle Série, I. Sciences, Médecine 17:129-164

Parent taxon: Spatangidea according to A. Kroh and A. B. Smith 2010

See also Fischer 1966

Sister taxa: Eupatangidae, Eurypatagidae, Macropneustidae, Maretiidae, Megapneustidae, Spatangidae

Subtaxa: Breynia Breyninae Chuniola Echinocardiidae Echinocardium Lovenia Verbeekia

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Ecology: slow-moving shallow infaunal deposit feeder-detritivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of United States (1: South Carolina collection)

• Pliocene of Australia (1), Belgium (1), Taiwan (1), United States (14: Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia)

• Miocene of Australia (3), Belgium (1), Fiji (7), Indonesia (2), Italy (5), New Zealand (4), Switzerland (3), United States (3: Florida, Maryland)

• Oligocene to Miocene of Malta (3)

• Oligocene of United States (1: Texas)

• Whaingaroan of New Zealand (1)

Total: 51 collections including 55 occurrences

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