Family Sparidae Cuvier 1817 (ray-finned fish)

Actinopteri - Spariformes - Sparidae

Alternative spelling: Sparoidei

Parent taxon: Spariformes according to R. Betancur-R et al. 2013

See also Bannikov 2014, Carnevale et al. 2014, Casier 1966, Danil'chenko 1980, David 1943, Day 2002, Gaemers 1984, Jordan 1963, Mors et al. 2000, Nolf and Dockery 1993, Purdy et al. 2001, Schwarzhans 2003, Schwarzhans and Bratischko 2011, Szabo et al. 2017 and Weems 1999

Sister taxa: Centracanthidae, Lethrinidae, Nemipteridae

Subtaxa: Abromasta Archosargus Dentex Dentex microdon Dentex ventralis Dentinae Diplodus Ellaserrata Pagellus Pagrosomus Pagrus Pseudosparnodus Sciaenurus Sparidarum Sparnodus Sparus Spicara

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Ecology: nektonic omnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of France (1 collection), Greece (1), Italy (4), Spain (1), United States (3: Florida, Georgia)

• Pliocene of Angola (1), Italy (2), Libya (1), Morocco (1), Portugal (1), United States (3: Florida, North Carolina)

• Hemphillian of Costa Rica (1)

• Miocene of Algeria (3), Argentina (4), Austria (3), Colombia (1), Costa Rica (2), the Czech Republic (3), France (4), Germany (3), India (1), Indonesia (1), Italy (5), Japan (1), Kazakhstan (1), Panama (1), Poland (1), Portugal (1), Saudi Arabia (1), Slovakia (1), South Africa (1), Spain (8), Sri Lanka (2), Turkey (1), United States (4: California, Florida, Virginia)

• Oligocene of Belgium (1), France (1), Germany (4), Hungary (3), Oman (2), United States (2: Louisiana, South Carolina)

• Eocene of Antarctica (2), Germany (1), Italy (1), Libya (1), Namibia (1), Nigeria (2), the United Kingdom (11), United States (2: Louisiana, Virginia)

• Paleocene of Denmark (3), Ukraine (1), United States (1: Alabama)

• Cretaceous of Argentina (1), Brazil (1), France (6)

Total: 120 collections including 203 occurrences

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